Foreign and Domestic Events


President McKinley’s assassination (1901)

By: Hanna Wright

        President McKinley had a very high imperialist foreign policy. Under him the Spanish-American war was fought, which brought our country into the world arena as a world power. It was this war that brought their imperial conquest for Latin America. After this victory, we demanded the Philippines to be ours. We later took Hawaii and then Cuba. At the beginning of the 20th century, ‘Propaganda by the Deed’ was what the anarchists were in the middle of. The idea of this ‘Propaganda by the Deed’ was that if someone killed a member of ruling order, not only would the ‘fear of GOD’ be put into them, but it would inspire a great amount of people to rise up against their rulers. Because of this deed, many rumors were spread that President McKinley was a target. There was no evidence to support these rumors but the fear never went away.
     On September 5, 1901, President Mckinley was on his way to Buffalo, where Leon Czolgosz (Colgosh), of Russian-Polish parentage, was waiting for him. President McKinley was holding an open-air speech and later held ‘an audience’ for 10 minutes. As the crowd was forming a line, Czolgosz was positioned at the front holding a handkerchief which hid a .32 calibre pistol.
    When President McKinley reached Czolgosz, he extended his hand out, which Czolgosz hit away. He then pulled out the pistol and shot McKinley once in the chest and once in the Abdomen. Czolgosz was then surrounded by 8 guards and was beaten senseless. The shot in McKinley’s chest didn’t do very much damage, but the shot in his abdomen is what caused him to die. It went through both walls of his stomach and then proceeded to go through his kidney. He died 10 days later at 2:15 a.m.
http://mediamythalert.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/mckinley.jpg
Citation:
Libcom.org, . "The Assassination of President McKinley." 10 September, 2006. Steven, Online Posting to General. E-mail. <http://www.libcom.org/history/articles/assassination-mckinley/>.

 

San Francisco Earthquake (1906)

By: Wyatt Hartwig

    April 18, 1906 a devastating earthquake hit California. It destroyed hundreds of homes, and over 500 city blocks. It also killed about 2,800 people. The earthquake ruptured the Northernmost 296 miles of the San Andreas fault, and a couple other states felt the shock of the earthquake.
    On April 18 one of the worst earthquakes of all time hit California. It ruptured 296 miles of the San Andreas fault from San Juan to the Triple junction at cape Mendocino. At almost precisely 5:12 am a great foreshock occurred and about 25 seconds later the earthquake broke loose. It was such a harsh quake that Southern Oregon, Central Nevada, and South of los Angeles felt it. The ground shifted three to four feet, and it went about 5,900 mph. Some 28,000 buildings were destroyed and 500 city blocks. Survivors had to sleep in tents in the park and waited in line for food. The fires were spreading so fast that Law Enforcement had to destroy $30,000 worth of liquor so the fires didn’t spread.
    This shows that we can be wiped out by mother nature, and it just takes everything out like buildings and people. So then we have to spend money to rebuild bridges or offices, so it also costs a lot of money.
   

. U.S. Department of the Interior , Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/nca/1906/18april/index.php>.

. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration , Web. 18 Oct. 2012. http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/sf/ .


Titanic Sinks (1912)

By: Wyatt Hartwig

    In 1912 the Titanic hit an iceberg going from Southampton, UK to New York City, U.S. in the North Atlantic Ocean on April 15. Even though the ship got many notifications about icebergs in the vicinity, the ships captain Edward Smith ignored the warnings and decided to stay on course. Although later on to discover that he was headed for a gigantic iceberg that would kill over 1,500 people.
    It took many years for the building of the Titanic to finish. It was supposed to be an ‘unsinkable’ ship, and it was the most magnificent ship of its time. When the ship was done being built hundreds of people bought tickets to sail on this brand new ship. The Titanic set sail on April 10, 1912 with 2,223 people, going from Southampton, UK to New York City, U.S. Everybody on board loved the ship, until the horrific event of the sinking came. At 11:30 pm on April 14 the ship took a hard hit to the starboard side that was 300 feet long, and the hull started to fill with water fast then at 2:20 am on April 15 the ship dove beneath the icy surface. Thomas Andrews said the ship would be afloat for about an hour and a half, it stayed afloat for roughly three hours. While chaos struck everywhere lifeboats started to be filled. It was ordered women and children to be loaded first. The first boat was launched carrying 28 passengers. These lifeboats were meant to hold 65 passengers. Although another disadvantage is that the ship only had 16 safety boats to accommodate 1,178 people, but with the boats not being filled all the way there wasn’t as many people saved. After all this the Cunards Carpathia steamed full ahead and rescued 705 people.
    “The ships historian John Maxtone-Graham compared the Titanic's story to the Challenger explosion in 1986, and that both tragedies triggered a sudden and complete collapse in confidence, revealing the we are vulnerable despite our modern presumptions of technological infallibility.” (Graham) Even our own technology has defaults, and when something happens we get scared it shows things do happen. Despite this, with the Titanic sinking it has inspired many books and movies.
http://www.printwand.com/blog/how-unsinkable-marketing-campaign-led-titanic-disaster&docid=98EGCmg4zGxUnM&imgurl=http://www.printwand.com/blog/media/2012/01/titanic-sinking.jpg&w
1996-2012. A&E Television Networks, Web. <http://www.history.com/topics/titanic>.


Panama Canal Opens 1914

By: Mackenzie Husko

    The Panama Canal was not only a huge accomplishment for the world but to show that the U.S. was capable of having and controlling power. Though the Canal did not officially open until August 15, 1914; the real work began for the U.S. in 1904. A decade it took to make the man made waterway, which over 50 miles long and has enough concrete to have a 12 foot high wall and encircle the whole island of Manhattan four times. It was not only an achievement for Theodore Roosevelt, or a nation but to a global success of shortening a trip from New York to Asia! The true success of the canal was overshadowed by World War I, but not a forgotten triumph.
    For over 400 years before the project of finally executing the canal in Panama it was just an idea. The French started out in 1880 to be the country to show it’s resources were superior to all others but did not prevail. Panama’s geography and terrain is not an easy place to work with and make a canal; mountain, jungles and rivers made it impossible for the French. After many years of the failed attempt by France; Theodore Roosevelt, President at the time, decided to make the United States the supreme country and take over the undone task. Many people were excited to help be apart of history and construct the canal, whether being a railroad engineer, file clerk, college graduate or just a poor person the idea to change the future was impeccable.
    Before making it possible to start the canal, Panama needed to be it’s own independent country. Panama was small province of Colombia, and instead of fighting Colombia and having a huge blood bath the U.S. just sent money and paid off making Panama a free country. So on May 4, 1904 was the starting point in the works of having the canal in Panama. In November 1904 excavation began in Culebra. Disaster strikes causing no working tools and Yellow fever was spreading, many workers fled the country too afraid of dying. To make sure the canal was to be made, the idea of the locks which would raise the ship and go over the mountains in Panama, there needed to be an artificial lake made. Many of the workers died making the canal, proposing problems of not having enough workers and getting more labor to replace the deceased.
    Finally the canal was finished proving the whole world wrong that history was in the making. The opening of the canals was set for August 15, 1914 and was a huge success. Though this event was all Roosevelt’s idea in helping the U.S. he was unable to attend due complications in being in another country. He may have only visited the Panama Canal once before it was even finish, but it was well worth know history was in the hands of Americans. Making America the leader of science, technology and innovation to the world and today’s society!

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http://www.findingdulcinea.com/docroot/dulcinea/fd_images/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Panama-Canal-Opens-for-Business/news/0/image.jpg

“The Panama Canal.” Writ. Michelle Ferrari. American Experience. pbs.org: 03 2012. Web. 21 Oct 2012 <http://video.pbs.org/video/1747929120/>.

Sinking Of The Lusitania

By: Kenneth Thurman

    The ship known as the Lusitania was sunk on May 7, 1915. It killed over 1,300 passengers including over 130 American. The ship was sunk within 18 minutes of it being hit with torpedoes. This had enraged the American public opinion. The reason was because of the amount of Americans that were killed in this event. This event marked the end of any delusions that the same good manners of warfare could survive and be carried out into the 20th century. Many allies had thought that the Germans had fired two or three torpedoes at the Lusitania, but they claimed that their U-Boats a.k.a submarines could only fire one torpedo. Within two years of this event, America had declared war on Germany.
    There would of had to have been a reason for this famous ship, the Lusitania to be sunk. Many people had said that the Lusitania was carrying something it should not have been. It turns out that it had actually been carrying ammunition, technically known as war contriband which made the ship a legitimate target for German submarines.
    On June 15,1915 the board of trade had actually began to investigate into the mysterious sinking of the Lusitania. The reason and how the Lusitania was sunk was never truly figured out, although there are many different assumptions or hunches about how the ship was sunk, none were actually proven to really be the reason of this whole event.

http://www.infiniteunknown.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/lusitania.jpg
Citation: “The Sinking Of The Lusitania,1915”, EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2000)


U.S. Enters World War 1

By: Hanna Wright

            In 1915, killing 120 Americans, the Lusitania was sunk. Then, 1 year later, the Sussex was sunk by the German’s ships. America was outraged at their violations of their neutral rights at sea. At this point, teddy Roosevelt and other Americans demanded war.

1916: President Wilson took a stance in foreign affairs by increasing the military’s size and warning the Germans. This is what he warned them:”Unless the Imperial Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of submarine warfare against passenger and freight-carrying vessels, the Government of the United States can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the German Empire altogether (1).”  The Germans responded by ceasing warfare until 1917 when the German Ambassador Berstoff announced the submarine warfare and ended diplomatic relations with the United States.

Military strategists predicted certain defeat for the Germans. At this time, the U.S. entered war. Alfred Zimmerman tried to get Mexico and Japan to attack the U.S. A message  was decoded by the british that held Zimmerman’s intent and pushed America further into action. Asking for permission from congress, President Wilson pushed for war. Congress soon declared in on April 6, 1917. President Wilson said it was  "an act of high principle and idealism...[and]..as a crusade to make the world safe for democracy."


http://im.glogster.com/media/5/34/61/70/34617063.jpg

Citation:

David W., Koeller. "U.S. Enters WWI: 1917." 1996-9. David W. Koeller, E-mail. <http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/world/uswwi.html>.


WWI Ends (1918)
By: Mackenzie Husko
    In 1914 World War I begins in Europe, mainly between the countries Germany, France, Great Britain and Russia. There were other small countries involved as well but not as big or a threat compared to these great large countries involvement. The U.S. did not come into play in the war until 1917, one year before the war officially ends. Why the U.S. was so late to the war, is because Americans didn’t want to be apart of a foreign affairs until the war started to cause problems and possibly lead to war in the United States. Reasoning of the war is always in a different perspective, but in other words the countries Bosnia and Austria-Hungary started the war and pulled in better resources and countries to help one up the other side. Causing to make the biggest war to date in the whole world.
    On June 28, 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, was shot with his wife by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip in Bosnia causing a start to World War I. Then on July 28 a month later, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Later France and Russia begin to mobilize and Ally together on August 1st. France and Germany declared war on each other on August 3rd, also Great Britain then declares war on Germany. “In 1915, the Allies attempted to break the stalemate with an amphibious invasion of Turkey, which had joined the Central Powers in October 1914, but after heavy bloodshed the Allies were forced to retreat in early 1916.” (“World War I Ends”) Next a military plan known as “Schlieffen Plan” - conquest of France by going through Belgium and into northern France. It was an almost successful plan, but in September the French rallied and halted the German advance at the bloody battle Marne near Paris, France. Germany was successful, Russia on the other hand not so much. Which caused Russia to leave the war in 1917 and having to deal with the Russian Revolution. In 1918, American troops finally joined the Allies, Causing Germany to sign an armistice agreement.
    World War I was the “war to end all wars” due to the great number of deaths and destruction caused. On the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month in 1918 World War I ended, nine million soldiers died and 21 million were wounded. On June 28, 1919 the peace treaty was signed by German delegates and Allies in Versailles, France. From 1924-25 Adolf Hitler was imprisoned for sedition against the Weimar Republic, while imprisoned he writes the Mein Kampf.
    Unfortunately the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, causes Germany to start World War II. And causing a major death toll in the world, much worse and more severe than the first war had done. Also making World War I a contradiction for being the “war to end all wars” when it caused a war that is to this very day the worse possible war ever to happen to mankind. America’s entering the war, helped immensely to the whole world by bringing new weapons and strong resources to the war. Changing the way wars are being fought to this day!

“World War I ends.” 2012. The History Channel website. Oct 10 2012, 4:00 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/world-war-i-ends.
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N.d. english.illinois.eduWeb. 22 Oct 2012. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/ww1/images/18.jpg.


Kellogg-Braind Pact

By: Kenneth Thurman

    The Kellogg-Braind pact was an agreement to outlaw war. “On October 27, 1928 fifteen nations signed this pact at Paris”. This signatures included France, U.S., U.K., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy, and Japan. Later, an additional 147 nations followed this suit so that they could also be apart of this pact. This was a very serious international effort to prevent another world war to ever happen again. This agreement was ratified by the U.S. senate of a vote of 85-1.
       The French minister of foreign affairs, Aristide Braind was actually the person who came up with this brilliant idea so that a war between France and the U.S. could not be possible. Sadly this pact actually had a very little to no effect of stopping the rising militarism of the 1930’s or even World War Two. The pact did not really do the job it was made to do. The extension of the Pact to include other nations, was received very easily internationally.
    After the extremely severe losses the U.S. and other countries had suffered, the idea of declaring that war was illegal was very popular in the international public opinion. In the beginning of World War One, U.S. officials and private citizens had made very many significant efforts to guarantee that the nation could not ever be pulled into another war again. This Pact did help with many things, but did not truly do what it was meant to.

http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/506443-34231-45.jpg


Citation: . N.p.. Web. 22 Oct 2012. <http://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/Kellogg>.

Foreign and Domestic Events: 1900-1929

By: Hanna Wright

    From 1900 to 1929 there were many things that happened, from President Mckinley being assassinated in September of 1901 to the Kellogg-Braind Pact in October of 1928. There were tragedies and war that struck causing change.
    In 1901 ‘Propaganda by the Deed’ was formed this meant that by killing members of the ruling order, not only would the ‘fear of God’ be put into them but that it would eventually inspire the masses into rising up against their masters. President McKinley was thought to be a target of this but there was no further proof but the fear always remained.
    On September 5, 1901 President McKinley was on his way to Buffalo, where Leon Czolgosz (Colgosh), of Russian-Polish parentage, was waiting for him. President McKinley was holding an open-air speech and later held ‘an audience’ for 10 minutes. As the crowd was forming a line, Czolgosz was positioned at the front holding a handkerchief which hid a .32 calibre pistol.When President McKinley reached Czolgosz, he extended his hand out, which Czolgosz hit away. He then pulled out the pistol and shot McKinley once in the chest and once in the Abdomen. Czolgosz was then surrounded by 8 guards and was beaten senseless. The shot in McKinley’s chest didn’t do very much damage, but the shot in his abdomen is what caused him to die. It went through both walls of his stomach and then proceeded to go through his kidney. He died 10 days later at 2:15 a.m.

    On April 18, 1906, San Francisco suffered from a horrific earthquake, destroying hundreds of homes and killed about 2,800 people. It ruptured 296 miles of the San Andreas fault from San Juan to the Triple junction at cape Mendocino. At almost precisely 5:12 am a great foreshock occurred and about 25 seconds later the earthquake broke loose. It was such a harsh quake that Southern Oregon, Central Nevada, and South of los Angeles felt it. The ground shifted three to four feet, and it went about 5,900 mph. Some 28,000 buildings were destroyed and 500 city blocks. Survivors had to sleep in tents in the park and waited in line for food.
   

In 1912 the Titanic hit an iceberg going from Southampton, UK to New York City, U.S. in the North Atlantic Ocean on April 15. Even though the ship got many notifications about icebergs in the vicinity, the ships captain Edward Smith ignored the warnings and decided to stay on course. Although later on to discover that he was headed for a gigantic iceberg that would kill over 1,500 people.

The Panama Canal was not only a huge accomplishment for the world but to show that the U.S. was capable of having and controlling power. Though the Canal did not officially open until August 15, 1914; the real work began for the U.S. in 1904. A decade it took to make the man made waterway, which over 50 miles long and has enough concrete to have a 12 foot high wall and encircle the whole island of Manhattan four times. It was not only an achievement for Theodore Roosevelt, or a nation but to a global success of shortening a trip from New York to Asia! The true success of the canal was overshadowed by World War I, but not a forgotten triumph.


The ship known as the Lusitania was sunk on May 7, 1915. It killed over 1,300 passengers including over 130 American. The ship was sunk within 18 minutes of it being hit with torpedoes. This had enraged the American public opinion. The reason was because of the amount of Americans that were killed in this event. This event marked the end of any delusions that the same good manners of warfare could survive and be carried out into the 20th century. Many allies had thought that the Germans had fired two or three torpedoes at the Lusitania, but they claimed that their U-Boats a.k.a submarines could only fire one torpedo. Within two years of this event, America had declared war on Germany.


1916: President Wilson took a stance in foreign affairs by increasing the military’s size and warning the Germans. This is what he warned them:”Unless the Imperial Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of submarine warfare against passenger and freight-carrying vessels, the Government of the United States can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the German Empire altogether (1).” The Germans responded by ceasing warfare until 1917 when the German Ambassador Berstoff announced the submarine warfare and ended diplomatic relations with the United States.

Military strategists predicted certain defeat for the Germans. At this time, the U.S. entered war. Alfred Zimmerman tried to get Mexico and Japan to attack the U.S. A message was decoded by the british that held Zimmerman’s intent and pushed America further into action. Asking for permission from congress, President Wilson pushed for war. Congress soon declared in on April 6, 1917. President Wilson said it was "an act of high principle and idealism...[and]..as a crusade to make the world safe for democracy."


World War I was the “war to end all wars” due to the great number of deaths and destruction caused. On the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month in 1918 World War I ended, nine million soldiers died and 21 million were wounded. On June 28, 1919 the peace treaty was signed by German delegates and Allies in Versailles, France. From 1924-25 Adolf Hitler was imprisoned for sedition against the Weimar Republic, while imprisoned he writes the Mein Kampf.

Unfortunately the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, causes Germany to start World War II. And causing a major death toll in the world, much worse and more severe than the first war had done. Also making World War I a contradiction for being the “war to end all wars” when it caused a war that is to this very day the worse possible war ever to happen to mankind.


The Kellogg-Braind pact was an agreement to outlaw war. “On October 27, 1928 fifteen nations signed this pact at Paris”. This signatures included France, U.S., U.K., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy, and Japan. Later, an additional 147 nations followed this suit so that they could also be apart of this pact. This was a very serious international effort to prevent another world war to ever happen again. This agreement was ratified by the U.S. senate of a vote of 85-1.


These are important learn about because they all had such a huge impact not only on America but everyone in the world. There were wars, tragedies, and treaties. All of those events made our country what it is today and that is why we must learn about this. They all have a significant meaning to our country and will always be a part of what we are today.




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