HOW TO CLEAN IVORY - HOW TO

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How To Clean Ivory


how to clean ivory
    how to
  • Providing detailed and practical advice
  • Practical advice on a particular subject; that gives advice or instruction on a particular topic
  • (How To’s) Multi-Speed Animations
  • A how-to or a how to is an informal, often short, description of how to accomplish some specific task. A how-to is usually meant to help non-experts, may leave out details that are only important to experts, and may also be greatly simplified from an overall discussion of the topic.
    clean
  • Make (something or someone) free of dirt, marks, or mess, esp. by washing, wiping, or brushing
  • clean and jerk: a weightlift in which the barbell is lifted to shoulder height and then jerked overhead
  • make clean by removing dirt, filth, or unwanted substances from; "Clean the stove!"; "The dentist cleaned my teeth"
  • Remove the innards of (fish or poultry) prior to cooking
  • free from dirt or impurities; or having clean habits; "children with clean shining faces"; "clean white shirts"; "clean dishes"; "a spotlessly clean house"; "cats are clean animals"
    ivory
  • a hard smooth ivory colored dentine that makes up most of the tusks of elephants and walruses
  • Ivory is formed from dentine and constitutes the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals such as the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, mammoth and narwhal.
  • bone: a shade of white the color of bleached bones
  • An object made of ivory
  • The keys of a piano
  • A hard creamy-white substance composing the main part of the tusks of an elephant, walrus, or narwhal, often (esp. formerly) used to make ornaments and other articles
how to clean ivory - Avery Printable
Avery Printable Two-Side Clean-Edge Business Cards for Laser Printers, White, Pack of 200 (05871)
Avery Printable Two-Side Clean-Edge Business Cards for Laser Printers, White, Pack of 200 (05871)
You've helped your company grow, now make it thrive. Use these Two-Side Clean Edge Business Cards to get the attention your growing business needs. Print rich graphics and clean text on both sides to expand exposure to your goods and services. Free templates from avery website get you started in a snap. Sturdy cards with clean, smooth edges can go from your laser printer to a potential customer's hand in minutes. It's so easy, you'll quickly take your business above and beyond. Clean, smooth edges for a professional presentation Two-sided printing lets you include important information on both sides Durable material is extra sturdy to withstand frequent use Convenient do-it-yourself cards mean that you can make changes and print new cards at a moment's notice Design and print from your desktop in minutes Print only the number of cards you need Optimized for both color laser and black-and-white laser printers Customize and print using free templates from avery website Avery do-it-yourself two-sided Clean Edge business cards are sturdy and customizable and deliver outstanding, professional-looking text and graphics

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A Unique, Magnificent, and Highly Important Roman Gold Medallion of 5 Solidi of Constantius Gallus (351-354 C.E.), an Exceptionally Executed Likeness
A Unique, Magnificent, and Highly Important Roman Gold Medallion of 5 Solidi of Constantius Gallus (351-354 C.E.), an Exceptionally Executed Likeness
Constantius Gallus Caesar, 351 - 354 Medallion of 5 solidi, Antioch circa 351, 20.24 g. DN CONSTANTI - VS NOB CAES Bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust l. Rev. GLORIA RO - MANORVM Constantinopolis, pearl-diademed and draped, seated l. on decorated throne, holding thyrsus in l. hand and Victory on globe in r.; her l. foot on globe. In exergue, SMANT. RIC p. 517, 71A (this coin). Wealth of the Ancient World 163 (this coin). Vagi 3326. Unique. An outstanding medallion, bearing a portrait of great strength and a finely executed and richly detailed reverse composition. Extremely fine Ex Leu 28, 1981, 580; Sotheby's 19.6.1990, Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection, 161 and Sotheby's 8.7.1996, 185 sales. Without hesitation we may attribute this medallion to an engraver of the greatest skill, for it is an artistic masterpiece of Late Antiquity. The obverse confers a noble, godlike, status on Gallus, whereas the reverse is of monumental composition, and is enriched with detail rarely if ever equalled. If doubts had existed in the East about Gallus' qualifications to rule in place of the emperor Constantius II, who was campaigning against the rebel Magnentius in Europe, a medallion such as this might have helped assuage any fears. It no doubt was produced for his accession in 351, and was distributed alongside medallions of equal value bearing the likeness of Constantius II. Portraits from the Constantinian period - especially from late in the period - represent a departure from all earlier portrait styles. Over the course of centuries the Imperial portrait evolved from the realistic to the idealized, and eventually to the stylised. One can readily observe the change from the military emperors and the tetrarchy to the Constantinian era: rigorous, practical, bearded portraits with shortly cropped hair and hard edges gave way to clean-shaven, long-haired portraits comprised mainly of soft contours indicating Oriental opulence and divine majesty. On this medallion we have a pristine example of late Constantinian portraiture in all of its sublime glory. His is a monumental, 'holy countenance' that elevates the new Caesar above the world he rules. It is more than an image of a man, it is a representation of his divine power and his unique station between the human and the divine. Statuesque imagery such as this recalls the famous passage of Ammianus Marcellinus (16,10) wherein he describes the formal entry of Constantius II into Rome: "He looked so stiffly ahead as if he had an iron band about his neck and he turned his face neither to the right nor to the left, he was not as a living person, but as an image." The reverse is a stunning example of how deeply the courts of the Roman east had been influenced by Greek and Oriental cultures. This inscription - "the glory of the Romans" - originally was introduced by Constantine the Great in reference to himself as the source of Rome's renewed glory. On this piece it seemingly refers to the seated figure Constantinopolis, indicating that the city itself was the glory of the Romans and their empire. The seated figure is simply extraordinary, and we may delight in its overall composition, which is ingeniously aligned high and to the right. Not only does this preserve open space at the left, and give prominence to the bold mintmark that trumpets its value as sacred money of Antioch, but more importantly it shakes the usual temptation of die engravers to achieve perfectly central symmetry. Adding to the impact of the composition is the rich detail and ornamentation, and the artful blending of the soft, flowing image of Constantinopolis against the rigid, jewelled frame of the throne and stylised ship's prow. These incongruous elements, which might have clashed under the hand of a less-gifted artist, here merge seamlessly. There can be little doubt that this powerful image is indebted to Phidias' famous gold and ivory statue of Zeus (Jupiter), which earlier had been the model for the facing seated Zeus on aurei of Licinius and his son (lot 269). T. F. Matthews (The Clash of Gods, A Reinterpretation of Early Christian Art; Princeton, 1993) considers Phidias' statue not only to have been the source of Licinius' Zeus, but also the source of the enthroned cult images of Roma and Constantinopolis. Providing an element of immediacy to the engraver of this medallion, perhaps, was the fact that a famous copy of Phidias' statue of Zeus Olympios had been erected at Daphne, a sanctuary outside Antioch, more than 500 years before. Also, a large percentage of Licinius' Zeus aurei were struck at Antioch and, more recently still, sometime after 330 Phidias' great statue was moved from Olympia to Constantinople. (continues) The figure of Constantinopolis - the personification of Constantine's new capital - became common to coins and medals after the city was dedicated on May 11, 330. She is shown on obverses as a helmeted bust, or on reverses as a seated or standing figure. Here s
Dilmun - the Cradle of Civilization
Dilmun - the Cradle of Civilization
Dilmun is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf, the Cradle of Civilization. Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. Because of its location along the sea trade routes linking Mesopotamia with the Indus Valley Civilization, Dilmun developed in the Bronze Age, from ca. 3000 BC, into one of the greatest entrepots of trade of the ancient world. There is both literary and archaeological evidence for the trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley (probably correctly identified with the land called Meluhha in Akkadian). Impressions of clay seals from the Indus Valley city of Harappa were evidently used to seal bundles of merchandise, as clay seal impressions with cord or sack marks on the reverse side testify. A number of these Indus Valley seals have turned up at Ur and other Mesopotamian sites. "Persian Gulf" types of circular stamped rather than rolled seals, known from Dilmun, that appear at Lothal in Gujarat, India, and Faylahkah, as well as in Mesopotamia, are convincing corroboration of the long-distance sea trade. What the commerce consisted of is less sure: timber and precious woods, ivory, lapis lazuli, gold, and luxury goods such as carnelian and glazed stone beads, pearls from the Persian Gulf, shell and bone inlays, were among the goods sent to Mesopotamia in exchange for silver, tin, woolen textiles, olive oil and grains. Copper ingots, certainly, bitumen, which occurred naturally in Mesopotamia, may have been exchanged for cotton textiles and domestic fowl, major products of the Indus region that are not native to Mesopotamia - all these have been instanced. Mesopotamian trade documents, lists of goods, and official inscriptions mentioning Meluhha supplement Harappan seals and archaeological finds. Literary references to Meluhhan trade date from the Akkadian, the Third Dynasty of Ur, and Isin - Larsa Periods (ca. 2350 - 1800 BC), but the trade probably started in the Early Dynastic Period (ca. 2600 BC). Some Meluhhan vessels may have sailed directly to Mesopotamian ports, but by the Isin - Larsa Period, Dilmun monopolized the trade. By the subsequent Old Babylonian period, trade between the two cultures evidently had ceased entirely. The Bahrain National Museum assesses that its "Golden Age" lasted ca. 2200 - 1600 BC. Its decline dates from the time the Indus Valley civilization suddenly and mysteriously collapsed, in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. This would of course have stripped Dilmun of its importance as a trading center between Mesopotamia and India. The decay of the great sea trade with the east may have affected the power shift northwards observed in Mesopotamia itself. Evidence about Neolithic human cultures in Dilmun comes from flint tools and weapons. From later periods, cuneiform tablets, cylinder seals, pottery and even correspondence between rulers throw light on Dilmun. Written records mentioning the archipelago exist in Sumerian, Akkadian, Persian, Greek, and Latin sources. Dilmun, sometimes described as "the place where the sun rises" and "the Land of the Living" is the scene of a Sumerian creation myth and the place where the deified Sumerian hero of the flood, Ziusudra (Utnapishtim), was taken by the gods to live for ever. There is mention of Dilmun as a vassal of Assyria in the 8th century BC and by about 600 BC, it had been fully incorporated into the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Dilmun then falls into deep eclipse marked by the decline of the copper trade, so long controlled by Dilmun, and the switch to a less important role in the new trade of frankincense and spices. The discovery of an impressive palace at the Ras al Qalah site in Bahrain is promising to increase knowledge of this late period. Otherwise, there is virtually no information until the passage of Nearchus, the admiral in charge of Alexander the Great's fleet on the return from the Indus Valley. Nearchus kept to the Iranian coast of the Gulf, however, and cannot have stopped at Dilmun. Nearchus established a colony on the island of Falaika off the coast of Kuwait in the late 4th century BC, and explored the Gulf perhaps least as far south as Dilmun/Bahrain. From the time of Nearchus until the coming of Islam in the 7th century AD Dilmun/Bahrain was known by its Greek name of Tylos. The political history for this period is little known, but Tylos was at one point part of the Seleucid Empire, and of Characene and perhaps part of the Parthian Empire. Shapur II annexed it, together with eastern Arabia, into the Persian Sassanian empire in the 4th century. Unlike Egyptian and Mesopotamian tablets and cylinders, the Dilmun legacy has been discovered on circular seals. The primitive forms of images carved on the seal indicate they were used as charms or talisman. Carved on wood, soapstone shells or metal, these images clearly define

how to clean ivory
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