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10- Research Tools

(1) Evaluating Internet Resources

Most of what is posted on the Internet has never been subjected to the rigors of peer review common with many traditional publications. Students must learn to evaluate the reliability of information of the websites they visit.

  • Provide links to three websites (see examples) that provide information about a single topic related to your curriculum.
The History of the Spanish Language- Which Webpage is most reliable?

  1.  ****Random History****

You can always tell if a webpage is secure by the address:

(HTTPS) Shows that the webpage is secure and your data and information will remain there and not be given to a third party

Authority/ Accuracy/ Fairness/ Recency

1. " was created by a team of history enthusiasts dedicated to providing the Web's best selection of history and facts on random topics. We believe in advancing the place of history on the Internet and strive to fulfill this purpose. Each of our professionally trained writers and editors holds a Bachelor's degree in at least one of the following fields: history, English, or journalism. Many of them have even earned advanced degrees. Every history is carefully evaluated for accuracy and veracity and contains proper citations and references. We have chosen some of the histories on our own, but many of the topics were requested by site visitors. With all of the many histories and random factsavailable in our database, we hope you will find something to read, learn, and enjoy!" - Source: (About Us)
Since this website consists of many different historians, I would say that it has been subject to peer review. It also has a copyright:
 Copyright © 2007-2012 Random 

For this article from Random History, the webpage said: Posted October 9, 2007

  2. Wikipedia is well-known for its plethora of authors. There is no defined author of any particular article/piece. For this article, " The History of Spanish (the language) there were quite a few references:

  • Boyd-Bowman, Peter (1964), Índice geobiográfico de cuarenta mil pobladores españoles de América en el siglo XVI (Vol. I), Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo
  • Hammond, Robert M. (2001), The Sounds of Spanish: Analysis and Application (with Special Reference to American English), Somerville, Massachusetts: Cascadilla Press, ISBN 1-57473-018-5
  • Lapesa, Rafael (1942/1981), Historia de la lengua española (9th ed.), Madrid: Gredos, ISBN 84-249-0072-3, 84-249-0073-1
  • Lathrop, Thomas A. (2003), The Evolution of Spanish, Newark, Delaware: Juan de la Cuesta, ISBN 1-58977-014-5
  • Lloyd, Paul M. (1987), From Latin to Spanish, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society (Memoirs, Vol. 173), ISBN 0-87169-173-6
  • Navarro Tomás, Tomás (1918/1982), Manual de pronunciación española (21st ed.), Madrid: Concejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, ISBN 84-00-03462-7
  • Ostler, Nicholas (2005), Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World, New York: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-621086-0
  • Penny, Ralph (2002), A History of the Spanish Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-01184-1, 978-0-521-01184-6
  • Spaulding, Robert K[ilburn] (1943/1971), How Spanish Grew, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-01193-7

I would argue that this amount of references is small when dealing with the history of a language, but that doesn't necessarily mean that they are not good, strong references. This website, Wikipedia, is published for people and students to get quick, "correct", information. It's a for the people by the people type of website. We are the experts on the different topics. There is quite a bit of Bias that takes place on Wikipedia because of the references that people use to write their parts to the article. For topics less specific, as in more abstract, there could be quite a bit more bias. Actually, on topics like war and country-specific events a lot of bias can be found. This website is only open to peer reviews, which is what a lot of people must like about wikipedia; anyone can change the information, if they felt strongly about it. 

"Wikipedia- is amultilingual, web-based, free-content encyclopedia project operated by the Wikimedia Foundation and based on an openly editablemodel. The name "Wikipedia" is a portmanteau of the words wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites, from the Hawaiian word wiki, meaning "quick") and encyclopedia. Wikipedia's articles provide links to guide the user to related pages with additional information.

Wikipedia is written collaboratively by largely anonymous Internet volunteers who write without pay. Anyone with Internet access can write and make changes to Wikipedia articles, except in limited cases where editing is restricted to prevent disruption or vandalism. Users can contribute anonymously, under a pseudonym, or, if they choose to, with their real identity.

The fundamental principles by which Wikipedia operates are the five pillars. The Wikipedia community has developed many policies and guidelines to improve the encyclopedia; however, it is not a formal requirement to be familiar with them before contributing.

Since its creation in 2001, Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference websites, attracting 470 million unique visitors monthly as of February 2012. There are more than 77,000 active contributors working on over 22,000,000 articles in 285 languages. As of today, there are 4,114,920 articles in English. Every day, hundreds of thousands of visitors from around the world collectively make tens of thousands of edits and create thousands of new articles to augment the knowledge held by the Wikipedia encyclopedia. (See the statistics page for more information.)

People of all ages, cultures and backgrounds can add or edit article prose, references, images and other media here. What is contributed is more important than the expertise or qualifications of the contributor. What will remain depends upon whether it fits within Wikipedia's policies, including being verifiable against a published reliable source, thereby excluding editors' opinions and beliefs and unreviewed research, and whether the content is free of copyright restrictions and contentious material about living people. Contributions cannot damage Wikipedia because the software allows easy reversal of mistakes and many experienced editors are watching to help ensure that edits are cumulative improvements. Begin by simply clicking the Edit link at the top of any editable page!

Wikipedia is a live collaboration differing from paper-based reference sources in important ways. Unlike printed encyclopedias, Wikipedia is continually created and updated, with articles on historic events appearing within minutes, rather than months or years. Older articles tend to grow more comprehensive and balanced; newer articles may contain misinformation, unencyclopedic content, or vandalism. Awareness of this aids obtaining valid information and avoiding recently added misinformation (seeWikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia)." Source (ABOUT)

For the Article, "History of Spanish" It said: This page was last modified on 8 December 2012 at 15:29.

   3. A History of the Spanish Language- Cambridge University Press. Here is the PDF that the website will take you to. It is published in the Library of Congress and was written by Ralph Penny, at Queen Mary University of London. I believe this to be the most reliable source because of the information about the Autor, Mr. Penny, and also based on the publisher and text itself. Here is some information that is provided about Mr. Ralph Penny:

Areas of specialization

History of Spanish, dialectology, language variation and change, sociolinguistics.

Current research projects

Ralph Penny, Professor Emeritus of Romance Philology and Research Professor, is currently participating in an extensive project aimed at digitizing the data collected by the researchers involved in the Atlas Lingüístico de la Península Ibérica (ALPI). Only one volume of maps has been published (in 1962), but with the recent discovery of the complete set of fieldworkers’ completed questionnaires, it has become possible for dialectologists and language historians to exploit an enormously rich source of data. Thanks to the work of David Heap at the University of Western Ontario, these completed questionnaires are now available on the web (at However, they are currently only in photographic form, so that the archive is not searchable, and rather laborious to consult.

The current project, funded by the Spanish research council, and involving a number of scholars from Spain, Portugal and Canada, and myself, aims to agree a system of retranscription of the data, simplifying the enormously elaborate system used by the original investigators and converting it to the now-standard IPA system of phonetic transcription. A series of seminars are planned to take place in Madrid, to carry the project forward and set in train the web-based publication of a fully searchable data-set.

A further project comprises work on the distribution of linguistic features across the northern Peninsular dialect continuum, with the aim of clarifying the relationship there between isoglosses, politico-administrative boundaries, and language allegiances

Recent publications

  • ‘Early Medieval Iberia: How many Languages?’, in Early Medieval Spain: A Symposium, ed. Alan Deyermond & Martin Ryan, PMHRS, 63 (London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary, University of London, 2010), pp. 25-35.

  • ‘Languages: Spanish’, ‘Languages: Portuguese’, ‘Languages: Catalan’, in Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. Robert E. Bjork (Oxford: OUP, 2010).

  • ‘¿Existe una “frontera” entre “gallego” y “asturiano”?’, Revista de Historia de la Lengua Española, 4 (2010): 47-61.

  • ‘Vowel Harmony and Metaphony in Iberia: A Revised Analysis', Estudos de Lingüística Galega, 1 (2009): 113-24. E. Bjork (Oxford: OUP, 2010).

  • ‘Spanish Language’, in Encyclopedia of the Modern World, ed. Peter N. Stearns (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008). [ISBN13: 9780195176322]

  • ‘Robert Lawrence (‘Larry’) Trask’, biography in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online ed. (Oxford: OUP, 2008).

  • ‘La pertinencia de la dialectología y de la sociolingüística para la historia del español: unidad y divergencia en el romance peninsular’, in Actas del VIII Congreso Nacional de Jóvenes Investigadores de Historiografía e Historia de la Lengua Española (Barcelona, 2-4 abril 2008) (Barcelona: Universidad), pp. 47-57.

  • ‘Language Contact in Spain: a Historical View’, in Language Contact and Minority Languages on the Littorals of Europe, ed. Sture Ureland, Anthony Lodge, & Stefan Pugh, Studies in Eurolinguistics, 5 (Berlin: Logos, 2007), pp. 175-85. ISBN 978-3-8325-1644-4.

  • ‘Prólogo’, in Peter Trugill & J. M. Hernández Campoy, Diccionario de sociolingüística (Madrid: Gredos, 2007), pp. 9-10. 

  • 'What Did Sociolinguistics Ever Do for Language History?: The Contribution of Sociolinguistic Theory to the Diachronic Study of Spanish', Spanish in Context, special issueLanguage Variation and Change, 3:1 (2006), 49-62.
  • 'The Spanish-Speaking Caribbean', inSociolinguistics/Soziolinguistik: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society/Ein internationales Handbuch zur Wissenschaft von Sprache und Gesellschaft, 2nd ed., ed. Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, & Peter Trudgill (Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2006), pp. 2081-82.
  • A History of the Spanish Language, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) [Spanish translation:Gramática histórica del español, 2a ed. (Barcelona: Ariel, 2005)].

  • 'Northern Peninsular Dialect Distribution: Do Phonological Isoglosses Delimit Areas of Language Allegiance?', in Antes y después del 'Quijote': en el cincuentenario de la Asociación de Hispanistas de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda (Valencia 2005), Publicaciones de la Biblioteca Valenciana (Valencia: Biblioteca Valenciana, 2005), pp. 461-72.
  • ‘Evolución lingüística en la Baja Edad Media: evolución lingüística: evoluciones en el plano fonético’, in Historia de la lengua española, ed. Rafael Cano (Barcelona: Ariel, 2004), pp. 593-612.
  • 'Continuum dialectal y fronteras estatales: el caso del leonés medieval', in Orígenes de las lenguas romances en el Reino de León, siglos IX-XII (León 15 al 18 de octubre de 2003), I (León: Centro de Estudios e Investigación 'San Isidoro', Caja España de Inversiones, & Archivo Histórico Diocesano, 2004), pp. 565-78.
  • Variation and Change in Spanish (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) [Spanish translation: Variación y cambio en español (Madrid: Gredos, 2004)].

  • ‘Historical Romance Linguistics: A Sociolinguistic Perspective’, La corónica, 31.2 (Spring 2003): 83-88.
  • ‘Ambigüedad grafemática: correspondencia entre fonemas y grafemas en los textos peninsulares anteriores al s. xiii’, inLengua romance en los textos latinos en la Edad Media: sobre los orígenes del castellano escrito, ed. Hermógenes Perdiguero Villarreal (Burgos: Universidad & Instituto Castellano y Leonés de la Lengua, 2003), pp. 221-28.

  • ‘Procesos de clasificación verbal española: polaridad de vocales radicales en los verbos en –er e –ir’, in Pulchre, bene, recte: estudios en homenaje al Prof. Fernando González Ollé, ed. Manuel Casado Velarde & Carmen Saralegui Platero (Pamplona: EUNSA, 2002).
  • ‘Dialect Contact, Koineization, and the Language of the Poema de Mio Cid’, in ‘Mio Cid’ Studies: ‘Some Problems of Diplomatic’ Fifty Years On, ed. Alan Deyermond, David G. Pattison, & Eric Southworth, PMHRS, 42 (London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary, University of London, 2002), pp. 91-102.
  • ‘Contacto de variedades y resolución de la variación: aspiración y pérdida de /h/ en el Madrid del s. XVI’, in Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Historia de la Lengua Española (Valencia, 31 de enero-4 de febrero de 2000), 2 vols, ed. Juan Sánchez & María Teresa Echenique Elizondo (Madrid: Gredos, 2002), i, pp. 397-406.
  • (With Ma.-Lourdes García-Macho) Gramática histórica de la lengua española, II, Morfología (Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Enseñanza a Distancia, 2001).
  • ‘Spanish’, ‘Judeo-Spanish’, ‘Mozarabic’. Entries inEncyclopedia of European Languages, ed. Glanville Price (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 256-57, 303-04, 417-26. [Spanish translation: Enciclopedia de las lenguas de Europa(Madrid: Gredos, 2001), pp. 185-95, 352-53, 402-03.]

  • ‘Standard versus Dialect: Linguistic (Dis)continuity in the Iberian Peninsula’, in Essays in Hispanic Linguistics Dedicated to Paul M. Lloyd, ed. Robert Blake, Diana Ranson & Roger Wright (Newark, Del: Juan de la Cuesta, 1999), pp. 43-55.
  • ‘La grafía de los textos notariales castellanos de la Alta Edad Media: ¿sistema logográfico o fonológico?’, in Estudios de grafemática en el dominio hispánico, ed. José Manuel Blecua, Juan Gutiérrez & Lidia Salas, Aguas Vivas, 1 (Salamanca: Univ. & Instituto Caro y Cuervo,1998), pp. 211-23.
  • ‘¿En qué consiste una historia del castellano?’, in Actas del IV Congreso Internacional de Historia de la Lengua Española(La Rioja, 1-5 de abril de 1997), 2 vols, ed. Claudio García Turza, Fabián González Bachiller, & Javier Mangado Martínez (Logroño: Asociación de Historia de la Lengua Española, Gobierno de La Rioja, & Universidad de La Rioja, 1998), II, pp. 583-94.
  • ‘The Language of Gonzalo de Berceo, in the Context of Peninsular Dialectal Variation’, in The Medieval Mind: Hispanic Studies in Honour of Alan Deyermond, ed. Ian Macpherson & Ralph Penny (London: Tamesis, 1997), pp. 327-44.

Articles forthcoming:

  • ‘La historia de la lengua española en Gran Bretaña e Irlanda’, in Actas del VIII Congreso Internacional de Historia de la Lengua Española (Santiago de Compostela septiembre de 2009), pp. 2417-24.

  • ‘European Linguistic Expansion: The Case of Judeo-Spanish’, in Proceedings of the Fifteenth British Conference on Judeo-Spanish Studies (Queen Mary, University of London, June 2008) (London: Queen Mary, University of London).

  • ‘Variation in Judeo-Spanish: The Question of Competing Norms’, in Beatrice Schmid Festschrift (Basel).

A History of the Spanish Language:

First Published- 1991
7th Printing- 2000
Second Edition- 2007
Printed in the UK at Cambridge University

(2) Electronic References

Since we live in the Information Age, it is particularly important that teachers are able to access and evaluate information to prepare accurate, up-to-date lessons, and to teach their students the principles of electronic research. In this activity you will examine a variety of electronic references in your quest to acquire information for lessons or other professional activities.

  • Identify two topics (see examples) to research using electronic references (broadcast news, almanacs, quotations, etc.). Research the first topic using at least one resource from each of five categories of electronic resources. Repeat the process with the second topic, using references from five additional categories.

Categories of electronic resources

  • On your assignment page:
    • Provide links to the resource

  • ****ABC NEWS****


    • Summarize key information acquired, including screen captures or graphics as necessary.

  • I chose the news, educational articles, and quotations. The reason being that most students watch the news without realizing it. Their parents will have it on in the background, or they will flip through the channels and catch something they are interested in. Educational articles are sometimes assigned by teachers for the students to read, making it important for the students to understand how to access them and how to read and understand them. Quotations often inspire students, which is the main reason for their existence, inspiration. 

    • Identify the special features (e.g. hypertext linking of terms, Boolean search capabilities, archival search, knowledge tree, downloadable movies, online audio transcripts, animations, translations, reference lists, printer-friendly output, multimedia links, PDA or bookreader download, visible directory structure, etc.) of each of the reference tools you have used.

  • The references that I chose are not too complicated in the special features area. Most are just a database of information that can be accessed by typing in the URL. However, there are other sources that do require a knowledge of these special features. I will share one here.           

Google Translator is a very powerful tool. Especially for those students who are taking foreign language classes. They think that they have an easy out by just typing in all of their work to the translator, but they are very wrong. This tool is only as powerful as the knowledge that you need to have in order to use it. For example, in this screen shot the drop down menu on the right hand side of the screen is giving you several different options for the highlighted text on the left. Now, what the translator produces is not always correct hence the drop down menu. In Spanish, there are sometimes more than 1-3 ways to say something and the computer is giving you a chance to change the sentence that they have guessed for you. If a student fails to change their grammar, they did not know what they were doing in the first place because they would have realized that what the computer produced was incorrect. This software is quite amazing if you know what you're doing and if you know how to use it. 

    • List criteria for determining the authenticity of information on a website. 

  • A website can be deemed credible if:

  • -The information that you are looking for is up to date and updated constantly
  • - The author is credible and gives references
  • - what comes after the (.) is one of, but not limited to, the following: .gov, .edu, etc.
  • -It can be found in a school or government library or their databases

    • Compare and contrast electronic references with their traditional paper counterparts. Discuss at least ten tasks or features that are possible with electronic resources that are not possible with traditional paper resources. 
  • Ten Tasks that Are Possible with Electronic Reference:

1. Immediate Information

2. Current Information always on the front page (,, etc)

3. Correct, Scholarly information from all over the globe (most likely not accessible in town library)

4. Online dictionaries and translation services offer rapid translations and definitions that would not be otherwise possible using a regular dictionary and look up words- word for word. 

5. Access to maps and atlas' that are 3D, such as google earth and other maps.

6. Access to thousands of texts and databases 

7. Ability to watch video clips/order movies/ etc. (for a daily lesson, etc) and not have to drag in the VCR player and waste time finding the clip on a VHS or DVD.

8. Students and teachers can have access to each other's information (emails, addresses, phone numbers, etc) and store them in their computers for future reference. There is no need to have carbon copies of this information.

9. Space is not an issue. There is no need to cabinets and other storing spaces for printed articles and research documents.

10. It is easier on the trees. There is no wasted paper since most of the work is done electronically. Emails alone must save millions of trees a year. 

    • Develop a lesson plan that incorporates electronic references. Your lesson plan should require students to use two or more electronic references to address a specific curricular objective.

See Attached Files

(3) Educational Research

Teachers should be familiar with research related to the teaching of their discipline. The Educational Research Database (ERIC) and Scholar provides access to abstracts from numerous educational publications, and is the best place to start when conducting educational research.

  • Find two or more full text articles and two or more abstracts of recent, relevant research related to the use of technology in the teaching of your subject. Include the text in your electronic portfolio. Summarize implications for the teaching of your subject. Cite the articles using APA format.

Paluzie, E., Pons, J., Silvestre, J., & Daniel, A. T. (2009). Migrants and market potential in spain over the twentieth century: A test of the new economic geography. Spanish Economic Review, 11(4), 243-265. doi:


Bayo-Moriones, Alberto, Margarita Billón, and Fernando Lera-López. "Skills, Technology and Organizational Innovation in Spanish Firms." International Journal of Manpower 2008th ser. 29.2 (2008): 122-45. Emerald. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 30 Nov. 2008. Web. 09 Dec. 2012.


(4) Multimedia teaching resources

At many libraries, teachers can obtain cards which give them special privileges as educators, including the ability to check our more resources and keep them longer. Teachers can check out books, CDs, DVDs and and videos.

  • Skim the video and write a synopsis of the video and a description of how you would use it in your classroom.
This video depicted a lot of collaboration and translation. There was English time and then there was Spanish time. The reason that I would not choose to implement this type of teaching in my classroom is because most of the students would be or are fluent in English, so they would almost always listen to the English and just let the Spanish slip by. There are no activities in this video where the children have to repeat (a significant amount of information-not just one-three words), and also there is no real drive for the students to learn the Spanish language. They seem to just be repeating the Spanish, but not really "playing the role" to make it as exciting at the English portion of the class. 

1. Did each teacher mirror one another? Why or why not? If yes, what is the purpose of doing this?

2. What level of reading were these children listening to? Why?

3. Does this video show collaboration? If so, in which ways? If not, please justify?
Sara Gallardo-Candia,
Dec 9, 2012, 5:29 PM
Sara Gallardo-Candia,
Dec 8, 2012, 11:20 PM
Sara Gallardo-Candia,
Dec 8, 2012, 11:18 PM