Linear Surveying Equipment

linear surveying equipment
    surveying equipment
  • (Last edited: Friday, 13 November 2009, 11:51 AM)
  • Arranged in or extending along a straight or nearly straight line
  • Consisting of or predominantly formed using lines or outlines
  • designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree
  • of or in or along or relating to a line; involving a single dimension; "a linear measurement"
  • analogue: of a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input; "analogue device"; "linear amplifier"
  • Involving one dimension only
linear surveying equipment - DEWALT DW092PK
DEWALT DW092PK 20X Transit Level Package with Tripod, Rod, and Carrying Case
DEWALT DW092PK  20X Transit Level Package with Tripod, Rod, and Carrying Case
With transit capability to determine vertical angles, the DeWalt DW092PK 20x Transit Level Package with Tripod, Rod, and Carrying Case features 20x magnification for a range that exceeds 200 feet. Capable of providing a +/-1/4-inch per 100 feet accuracy, this kit also comes with a 360-degree horizontal circle with vernier scale for precise measuring of horizontal angles. The included tripod's heavy-duty leveling base is easy to set-up for fast and easy leveling and the included leveling vial comes protected for jobsite durability. This level includes a heavy-duty aluminum tripod with quick adjust legs and a heavy-duty 8-foot aluminum grade rod.

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why horns ?
why horns ?
Text from Bruce Edgar I remember hearing a very good horn loudspeaker for the first time in 1978. It was sheer magic to my ears. I could not believe the incredibly realistic sound that seemed to radiate effortlessly into the room. But when I talk to other audiophiles about horns, the reaction I hear is usually one of disgust. Like a bad hair day, everyone seems to have had a "bad horn" day. Rich Weiner of "Bound for Sound" recently described his "bad horn" day. "As a neophyte audiophile, I once had the horrifying experience of listening to a friend's horn-based speaker system. "Killer equipment. You've never heard anything like it," he promised. Indeed I hadn't. I found myself sitting about six feet from a pair of Klipsch corner horns driven by Phase Linear 700 amps. My friend was right. I have never heard anything like it, although I understand that standing directly behind a 747 during takeoff is quite similar. Since that time I have avoided horn speakers." (Bound for Sound '99CES Report). But times are improving. In the same report, Weiner says, "Perhaps it's time to try horns again...Edgar's Titan (Horn) system was quite impressive...detailed and articulate..." Weiner's experience is not unique. Other reviewers and audiophiles are coming around to the concept of an acceptable audiophile horn system. So you may ask, "What is the difference between the vintage horn systems and the new generation of horn loudspeakers?" I have been researching that question for the last 20 odd years. In the process, I founded Edgarhorn whose main goal is the design and manufacture of audiophile quality horn loudspeakers. But I'm getting ahead of the story. After I had heard my first good horn speaker, I began trying to hear other horn speakers and other pseudo-horns. Most of the ones I listened to didn't come close to that first system that I'd heard. Eventually, I was able to analyze that good horn system to discover what made it tick. It belonged to a Senior Engineer at the aerospace company where I worked. At the time, I was a research scientist specializing in radio wave propagation and signals analysis. The design came from a group of amateur horn builders on the east coast lead by Ben Drisko in the early 50's. This system used a Drisko folded corner bass horn design, similar to the Klipschorn, and a JBL 375 compression driver on a Western Electric midrange horn. The component that made this system so good was the JBL 375 driver. My engineer friend recently bought a set of my Tractrix horns for his 375 drivers. When we tested them, I was astounded by their ruler flat response from 400 Hz to 10 kHz. In the early 80's, I set about tracking down all the horn articles and papers and analyzing all of the published and underground designs. I was very disappointed. There was no clear way of horn design. What was even more depressing was the periodic regurgitation of wrong headed ideas of horn design in articles from year to year that has infiltrated into some horn design software that is marketed today. So I embarked on course of experimentation with horn design and construction. I figured that with my background in wave propagation, spectrum analysis, and experimental physics, it should be easy enough to arrive at a satisfactory design. Was I ever wrong. After 20 years of horn building, I'm still finding new ways of designing and building horns. It's the Edison experience of having to go through all the different combinations and permutations of drivers and horns. And my customers keep coming in with different requirements that change my views and shift the proverbial paradigm. So back to the question, "What made the vintage horn systems sound bad?" There are a variety of problems. I have run into most of the horn problems either in designing my own horns or duplicating somebody else's horn. The first problem is electronics. Weiner talked about listening to some Klipschorns with high power solid state amps. The amps were one source of the bad sound. Horn systems typically have sensitivities of 100 to 108 dB SPL with one watt input. Even at the loudest sound that you would realistically audition any speaker system (95-100dB), the amplifier is only delivering a watt or so to the horn system at peaks. Most of the time the amp is idling at 100's of milliwatts; yes, I said milliwatts. At this level many high power solid state amps have real problems with crossover distortion. For this reason, I tell people who buy my horn systems to try different amps with them along with their existing amp. The low power requirement of horns means that single ended tube (SET) amps can easily fill a room with sound. However, not all single ended tube amps are created equal. Some SET designs have relatively high levels of distortion that can be easily heard on the horn system. And of course, the horn gets the blame for the distorted sound. A second problem wi
Aerial Survey - Equipment for Data Capture
Aerial Survey - Equipment for Data Capture
Wildlife Surveys - Data Capture Equipment: HP iPAQ 114 Classic Handheld PC (PDA); NCS-NAVI Bluetooth GPS R150+; 12VDC chargers; 12V sealed gel battery (for backup power supply for PDA/GPS charging)

linear surveying equipment
linear surveying equipment
Engineering Geodetic and Control Surveying: Surveyors Engineering Manual on CD-ROM by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
PURPOSE: This manual provides technical specifications and procedural guidance for control and geodetic surveying. It is intended for use by engineering, topographic, and construction surveyors performing control surveys for civil works, military construction, and environmental restoration projects. Procedural and quality control standards are defined to establish uniformity in control survey performance and contract administration. BACKGROUND: A geodetic control survey consists of establishing the horizontal and vertical positions of points for the control of a project or installation site, map, GIS, or study area. These surveys establish threedimensional point positions of fixed monuments, which then can provide the primary reference for subsequent engineering and construction projects. These control points also provide the basic framework from which detailed site plan topographic mapping, boundary demarcation, and construction alignment work can be performed. Precisely controlled monuments are also established to position marine construction vessels supporting the Corps navigation mission--e.g., the continuous positioning of dredges and survey boats. Geodetic control survey techniques are also used to effectively and efficiently monitor and evaluate external deformations in large structures, such as locks and dams.

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