3. Levine, Eliot. One Kid at a Time: Big Lessons from a Small School. New York: Teachers College Press, 2002.
1. For more on “emotional IQ,” see Goleman, Daniel. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter
More Than IQ. New York: Bantam Books, 1995.
2. Boyer, Ernest L. “Making the Connections.” This speech was delivered March 27, 1993, at the Annual Conference of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development in Washington, DC.
3. Exhibitions are public presentations of a student’s learning. At The Met, exhibitions are a main method of assessment. Each student gives a quarterly exhibition on their learning, progress, and gaps, and answers questions and receives feedback from their panel. Each panel consists of the student’s family members, advisor, and internship mentor, along with peers, other staff, and invited community members. For more on exhibitions, see Chapter 8. 4. Schneps, Matthew H., and Philip M. Sadler (Producers). A Private Universe [Videotape]. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 1987. For ordering information, call 1-800-LEARNER or visit http://www.learner.org.
5. Magliozzi, Tom, and Ray Magliozzi. In Our Humble Opinion: Car Talk’s Click and Clack Rant
and Rave. New York: Berkeley Publishing Group, 2000, p. 247.
6. Sternberg, Robert J. “What Is ‘Successful’ Intelligence?” Education Week 16, no. 11 (13 November 1996): 37.
7. Langer, Ellen. Mindfulness. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1989.
8. Langer, Ellen. The Power of Mindful Learning. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997.
9. Ellen Langer, quoted in “Are You Living Mindlessly” by Michael Ryan. Parade (1 March 1998): 8.
10. Joseph Hart (1876–1949) was a progressive educator and social reformer and the author of Light from the North: The Danish Folk Highschools, Their Meaning for America (1927). He was an important influence on Myles Horton.
1. Greene, Jay P., and Greg Forster. Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States [Education Working Paper, no. 3]. New York: Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, September 2003. Available: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/ewp_ 03.htm. During personal communication with Greg Forster (17 February 2004), he explained that this study relied on enrollment data, which are consistent from state to state, rather than dropout counts, which vary widely in validity from state to state. According to Forster, most dropout studies are unreliable due to the myriad definitions of what qualifies as “a dropout.” For example, some states do not count as dropouts those students who dropped out of school but later went on to get a GED. Greene and Forster believe that counting GED recipients as having completed high school is misleading if the purpose of the study is to measure the success of the traditional high school system.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Web-based Injury Statistics Query and
Reporting System (WISQARS)” [Web site]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars
[27 March 2003].
3. Maguire, Kathleen, and Ann L. Pastore (Eds.). Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics (30th ed.), pp. 352–353. Available: http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/ [9 February 2004]. 4. De Pree, Max. Leading Without Power: Finding Hope in Serving Community. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997, p. 151.
5. Altenbaugh, R. J. (Ed.). Historical Dictionary of American Education. Westport, CT:
Greenwood Press, 1999, p. 90.
7. Dewey, John. Experience and Education (1938). New York: Touchstone, 1997.
8. Boyer, Ernest L. “Making the Connections.”
9. Oliver Goldsmith (1728–1774) was an Irish playwright best known for The Vicar of Wake- field (1766) and She Stoops to Conquer (1773).
10. Reich, Robert B. “One Education Does Not Fit All.” The New York Times (11 July 2000): A25, col. 2. Also available at The American Prospect Online: http://www.prospect.org/ webfeatures/2000/07/reich-r-07-11.html.
11. Fried, Robert L. The Passionate Teacher: A Practical Guide. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.
12. Fried, Robert L. The Passionate Learner: How Teachers and Parents Can Help Children Reclaim the Joy of Discovery. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.
13. Littky, Dennis, and Robby Fried. “The Challenge to Make Good Schools Great.” NEA Today 6, no. 6 (January 1988): 4–8.
14. National Commission on Excellence on Education. “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative of Educational Reform.” Washington, DC: Author (April 1983). Available: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/ NatAtRisk/index.html.
15. This survey, featuring questions designed to gauge students’, teachers’, and parents’ attitudes about and experiences in school, is conducted annually as part of the “self-study” activities required under the Rhode Island Department of Education’s School Accountability for Learning and Teaching (SALT) program. The statistics cited here are from the “2003 Selected School Climate Students’ Report of Usage and Helpfulness of School Services [ST-H-C.5].” Current and archived “SALT survey” results data from The Met and other Rhode Island schools are available online from the Rhode Island Department of Education: http:// www.ridoe.net or http://www.infoworks.ride.uri.edu/2004/reports/salt.asp.
1. Krasner, Leonard. Environmental Design and Human Behavior, p. 173.
2. Lipsitz, Joan. Successful Schools for Young Adolescents, p. 168.
3. Wood, George. Schools That Work: America’s Most Innovative Public Education Programs. New York: Plume, Penguin Books, 1992, p. 112.
4. Katherine Graham (1917–2003) was owner and publisher of The Washington Post.
5. See “2002–2003 Parent Attitudes Towards the School and Involvement [PA-A.2]” in the State of Rhode Island 2003 SALT Survey Reports. Available: http://www.infoworks.ride.uri.edu/ 2002/reports/salt.asp.
6. Dewey, John. Experience and Education, p. 63.
7. Ibid., p. 62.
8. Deborah Meier. Personal communication, 19 May 1998.
9. My partner Elliot Washor has passionately studied how to make form follow function when designing school facilities. You can read an abridged version of his dissertation on the topic, titled “Innovative Pedagogy and School Facilities,” at http://www.designshare.com/research/ washor/InnovativePedagogyAndFacilities.asp.
10. De Pree, Max. Leading Without Power, p. 24.
11. Wood, op. cit., p. 55.
12. Lipsitz, op. cit., pp. 132–133.
13. For a great review of research about small schools, see Michael Klonsky’s Small Schools: The Numbers Tell a Story. Small Schools Workshop, The University of Illinois at Chicago Publications Series, 1995 (ordering information and additional resources are available at http://www.smallschoolsworkshop.org) and “Small Schools, Big Results” [online] from the KnowledgeWorks Foundation: http://www.kwfdn.org. Another essential resource is “School Size, School Climate, and Student Performance,” Kathleen Cotton’s report for the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, which surveys all the major research between 1981 and 1996 on the relationship between school size and school quality. It’s available at http://www. nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html.
14. “CPS Targets Gun Violence” [Press release]. Chicago: Chicago Public Schools, 24 January 2004. Available: http://www.cps.k12.il.us/AboutCPS/PressReleases/January_2004/gun_ violence.htm.
15. Toch, Thomas. “Small Schools, Big Ideas.” Education Week 23, no. 14 (3 December 2003): 44.16. click here
Conant, James B. The American High School Today: A First Report to Interested Citizens.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.
17. Toch, op. cit., p. 44.
1. Zander, Rosamund Stone, and Benjamin Zander. The Art of Possibility. Boston: Harvard
Business School Press, 2000, p. 26.
2. John Ciardi (1916–1986) was a poet, writer, and teacher.
3. The Center for Education Reform. “The Textbook Conundrum.” Washington, DC: Author (May 2001): 1. Available: http://www.edreform.com/_upload/textbook.pdf or by writing to The Center for Education Reform, Suite 204, 1001 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036. 4. Dewey, John. Experience and Education, p. 57.
5. Dewey said it this way: “I am not romantic enough about the young to suppose that
every pupil will respond or that any child of normally strong impulses will respond on every occasion. There are likely to be some who, when they come to school, are already victims
of injurious conditions outside of the school and who have become so passive and unduly docile that they fail to contribute. There will be others who, because of previous experience, are bumptious and unruly and perhaps downright rebellious. But it is certain that the general principle of social control cannot be predicated upon such cases. It is also true that no general rule can be laid down for dealing with such cases. The teacher has to deal with them individually. They fall into general classes, but no two are exactly alike. The educator has
to discover as best he or she can the causes for the recalcitrant attitudes.” (Experience and Education, p. 56)
1. “Information Works! Measuring Rhode Island’s Schools for Change: State Report Card.”
Providence, RI: Rhode Island Department of Education, 2003, p. 38. Available: http://www.
2. Steinberg, Adria. “Forty-Three Valedictorians: Graduates of The Met Talk About Their Learning.” Jobs for the Future [online]: 22. Available: http://www.jff.org/jff/kc/library/0053.
3. John Holt (1923–1985) was an outspoken advocate for education reform, children’s rights, and alternative schooling. He authored several books, including How Children Learn (1964/1995).
4. This story, told by William (Bill) Severns, president of the Performing Arts Center of Los
Angeles County, was reprinted in “Do It,” Stony Brook Teacher Training Complex Newsletter
(Fall 1971): 4.
5. Sternberg, Robert J. “What Is ‘Successful’ Intelligence?” p. 48.
6. Denis Diderot (1713–1784) was a French Enlightenment philosopher.
7. Beem, Edgar Allen. “Mama Mia!” Teacher Magazine 14, no. 3 (November/December 2002): 14. 8. Ibid., p. 13.
9. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, and Barbara Schneider. Becoming Adult: How Teenagers Prepare for the World of Work. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
10. Ibid., p. 19.
1. Wolk, Ron. “Bored of Education.” Teacher Magazine 13, no. 3 (November/December 2001): 3.
2. Thich Nhat Hanh is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist.
3. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, and Barbara Schneider. Becoming Adult, p. 18.
4. Miller, George A. “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information.” The Psychological Review 63 (1956): 81–97.
5. Steinberg, Adria. “Forty-Three Valedictorians,” p. 5.
6. The Met Implementation Plan, 1995, p. 11. Additional information on The Met’s philosophy and practices is available at http://www.bigpicture.org.
7. Illich, Ivan. Deschooling Society. London: Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd., 1996, p. 73.
8. The Met Implementation Plan, p. 16.
9. Howard A. Adams is director of the GEM National Institute on Mentoring at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
10. Al Capp (1909–1979) was a cartoonist and the creator of L’il Abner.
1. Lipsitz, Joan. Successful Schools for Young Adolescents, p. 155.
1. Thomas Huxley (1825–1895) was a British zoologist and philosopher best known for his
advocacy and defense of Darwinism. He wrote and spoke about numerous related topics,
including social issues and education.
2. Kohn, Alfie. “From Degrading to De-Grading.” High School Magazine 6, no. 5 (March 1999): 38–43. Available: http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/fdtd-g.htm.
3. For additional information, see “Transition from Middle School into High School,” by Nancy B. Mizelle and Judith L. Irvin, published in the May 2000 issue of Middle School Journal. The article is available online at http://www.nmsa.org/research/res_articles_ may2000.htm.
4. Thomas, Karen. “Colleges Clamp Down on Cheaters.” USA Today (11 June 2001): 3D.
5. Steinberg, Adria. “Forty-Three Valedictorians,” p. 8.
6. Dewey, John. The School and Society (1915). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1980, pp. 66–67.
1. Wesson, Kenneth. “The Volvo Effect.” Education Week 20, no. 12 (22 November 2000): 34. 2. Reich, Robert B. “One Education Does Not Fit All,” A25, col. 2.
4. Sternberg, Robert J. “What Is ‘Successful’ Intelligence?” p. 48.
5. “Let Them Eat Tests.” FairTest Examiner 15, no. 1, (Winter 2000–2001): 1. Available: http:// www.fairtest.org/nattest/Bush%20ExamWinter01.html.
6. Popham, W. James. The Truth About Testing: An Educator’s Call to Action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001, pp. 40–41.
7. Ibid., p. 43.
8. Ibid., p. 74.
1. Horton, Myles, with Judith Kohl and Herbert Kohl. The Long Haul: An Autobiography.
New York: Doubleday, 1990, p. 131. NOTE
2. Ibid., pp. 107–108.
3. Walker, D. F. Fundamentals of Curriculum: Passion and Professionalism (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003, p. 5.
4. Littky, Dennis. “Moving Towards a Vision.” In Edward R. Ducharme and Douglas S. Fleming (Eds.), The Rural and Small School Principalship: Practice, Research, and Vision. Chelmsf
MA: Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc.; Washington, DC: National Institute of Education, U.S.
Department of Education, 1985, p. 155.
5. Peters, Tom. Thriving on Chaos. New York: Knopf, 1987.
6. Littky, Dennis, and Robby Fried. “The Challenge to Make Good Schools Great,” pp. 7–8.
7. Levine, Mel. A Mind at a Time. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002, p. 335.
8. Cousins, Norman (Ed.). The Words of Albert Schweitzer. New York: Newmarket Press, 1996. 9. Buckingham, Marcus, and Curt Coffman. First, Break all the Rules: What the World’s Greatest Managers Do Differently. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.