G2a3b1a1

News for general G2a3b1a1 persons
The main news this past year for you persons in the U1 subgroup (G2a3b1a1) involves studies make in the Caucausus Mountains where your subgroup is most frequently found.  Regretfully the authors of these two studies did not do the specific SNP testing for U1.  However, they did provide some additional samples with marker testing.  And there are lots of them that have similar marker values to men we know are proven U1+.   Looking at the samples from the Balanovsky study, the samples similar to known U1 persons dominate the sample selection.  A total of 86% of Shapugs were found to be G persons, the highest percentage found in any distinct group anywhere in the world, and as mentioned, a high percentage of them seem to be your U1 cousins.  The Circassians also are heavily U1 and represent about 30 to 40% of the total population.  These samples are from the northwestern Caucasus area of s.w.Russia.  Going eastward, only a small amount of U1 is found among the Ossetians who occupy the central Caucasus, but in the northeast among the varied groups there the Avars are noteworthy for again having a significant percentage of U1 in their G samples, but G is not a major item in the Avar population
 
For information about Circassians (Adyghe people) link to
The Shapsugs are considered a branch of the Adyghe people.  Their info found at
The authors estimate that the Circassians and Shapsugs split from a common group about 1400 years ago. 
 
The Avars are explained at
 
There were some probably U1 samples among a small number of samples from the s.w. Caucasus, but it is probably best to ignore them because of the number.  
 
Those in our project from this area of Russia likely share ancestors with these men in the research study.  But the question arises whether the  U1 men in Europe and Turkey share a common ancestor with the n.w. Caucasus men or with the U1 men south of the Caucasus. Or maybe it is a mixed picture.  This will be a point of interest this coming year, but we really can only do these comparisons among men who are fully confirmed U1+ and have 67 markers.
 
Added to project in the past year were a few additional samples from the Caucasus region.  But we really need many more.
 
There are three groupings of you listed within the G2a2b1a1 (U1) section:
(1) Those proven U1+ and negative for the L13 subgroup
(2) Those proven U1+ but untested for the L13 subgroup
(3) Those of you only predicted U1.
 
Those in (1) really have nothing more to test at this time, but we are looking for ways to subdivide you once others are tested.
 
Those in (2) have not tested for the L13 subgroup.  It costs $29 to test for this one item.
 
Those in (3) are only predicted U1.  Because your marker values are to close to U1 persons we put you in this predicted U1 category, but this is no guarantee you are U1.  It costs $29 to check for U1.  However, with regard to Mr. Kaufmann who has not been tested, another Kaufmann has been confirmed U1.  This guarantees your result will also be U1+ as well as negative for the U1 subgroup
 
 
As mentioned in the general news section, if you are willing to better define your grouping, I will be glad to give individual recommendations and help. rayhbanks@cox.net.
 
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