News for general G2a3a persons
We are hampered in reporting news specific to your G2a3a subgroup because the researchers have seldom tested for it. This is getting better, and there has been a tendency to see a few more studies testing for M406, your shared mutation, but disappointingly few.
To give a better idea of the percentage of G2a3a (M406) in populations for which marker samples are available, I have created a listing showing the number of samples with a 21 value for DYS390.
We know from the information in the project that a high percentage of the men with 21 for DYS390 are actually your G2a3a cousins. So this chart gives some idea of how common G2a3a is in many European locales.
There was one exceptional study done this year worth pointing out to you.
The 2011 Balanovsky study found 12% G2a3a-M406 among the Lezgins but almost no M406 anywhere else in the Caucasus Mountains area. This is an area of the world with high levels of haplogroup G otherwise. So it is rather significant that so little M406 was found there. Your M406 subgroup is most common in the eastern Mediterranean. The Lezgians live in Azerbaijan and Russian Dagestan -- areas that comprise the eastern end of the Caucasus. But there was really no M406 among the Lezgians' neighbors within this eastern area. For more information on the Lezgians, link to
Within the project, there was a major development last year with the identification of the L645 SNP. This became the identifier for a new, major subgroup of G2a3a, and lots of samples were moved to this category. We were unable to move your samples there.
There are three types of you that we have identified.
(1) Those confirmed both M406+ (G2a3a) and negative for all the subgroups
(2) Those confirmed M406 but not tested for all the subgroups
(3) Those only predicted to be M406.
Those who are M406+ and negative for all its subgroups are a tiny number. They were specifically targeted for testing for the L645 subgroup or volunteered, and their results with those of others allowed moving a number of persons into the predicted L645 subgroup.
The second group are men who are proven M406 and often found negative for the first subgroup (L14) which has been around for several years. However, the status of many of you with regard to the new L645 subgroup is unknown. But we also have some M406 subgroups that are based on shared findings within the marker tests. This is a bit complicated, and I cannot give a simple rule as whether it is necessary for you to test for L645 and the other subgroups. I will be glad to work with you individually.
The third group of you consists of men who are predicted M406. The great bulk of you have 21 for DYS390 which is very typical of men within M406. But this is not totally reliable. And anyone who orders the deep clade test or just M406 ($29) to confirm their status would greatly add to our knowledge of M406. I would like to see your general M406 group shrink because of the testing and confirmation in membership in M406 subgroups. A special provision must be made for multiple men with the same surname, such as Ball, Gill, and French. Only one person within the surname grouping needs to test. M406 is much, much older than your surname group, and everyone in the surname group will have the same finding. In fact both a Gill and French man are proven M406, but neither has tested for all subgroups.
As mentioned in the general news section, if you are willing to better define your grouping, I will be glad to give individual recommendations and help. firstname.lastname@example.org.