The Hip‎ > ‎

Muscles of the Hip

This page will look at the muscles in the hip their ORIGINS and INSERTIONS and their main functions

HIP FLEXORS                                                                           HIP EXTENSORS
  • PSOAS MAJOR/ILIACUS                                                           - GLUT MAX
  • SARTORIUS/ASIS                                                                      - HAMSTRINGS
  • PECTINEUS                                                                                - GLUT MED/MIN (WEAK)
  • RECTUS FEMORIS/ ASIS
  • GLUT MIN (ANT)

LATERAL ROTATORS
  • GLUT MED/MIN- POSTERIOR ASPECT, THEREFOR TENDS TO BE WITH HIP EXTENSION
  • PIRIFORMIS/ BELOW 90 DEGREE HIP FLEXION
  • TENSOR FASCIA LATTE
  • GLUT MAX
MEDIAL ROTATORS
  • PIRIFORMIS- ABOVE 90 DEGREE HIP FLEXION                       - GLUT MED/MIN- ONLY WHEN HIP IS IN FLEXION
  • ABDUCTOR LONGUS/BREVIS/MAGNUS
  • PECTINIUS 
  • GRACILIS

ABDUCTORS                                                                             ADDUCTORS
  • OBTURATOR                                                                                    - TFL
  • GRACILIS                                                                                         - GLUT MED/MIN
  • ABDUCTORS

STABILIZERS
GLUT MED/MIN - PRIMARY FUNCTION  #### EXAM#####
  • WHEN ASSESING SOMEBODY IN PRACTICE YOUR LOOKING FOR GLUT MIN/MED FOR STABILITY

PIRIFORMIS

The Piriformis is located on the posterior aspect of the hip joint. It shares its location with the Gluteus Medius.

Important muscle for holding the head of the Femur in the ACETABULUM

ORIGIN- Originates from the sacrum. It comes from S2-S4 of the last third of the anterior aspect of the sacrum

INSERTION - Inserts into the upper border and medial side of the greater trochanter

ACTION-  Mainly a lateral rotator but
REMEMBER- Internal rotation above 90 degrees 
                                        Lateral rotation below 90 degrees

IMAGE FROM EXCERSISEBASICS.ORG

Gluteus Maximus

This is the biggest muscle in the body it is not only involved in hip extension it is also a postural muscle and a lateral rotator of the hip.

Very powerful muscle situated on the posterior aspect of the hip.

ORIGIN-  Posterior 3rd of iliac crest and the posterior aspect of the sacrum

INSERTS- Iliotibial tracht and the gluteal tuberosity

Action- Produces extension of the hip.
             Lateral rotation of the hip
             Extension at the knee
image from apmedia.pl

Glutues Minimus
Although the smallest of the glut muscles it has the largest attachment from the gluteal surface of the ilium.

Originates-  Upper attachment is from the gluteal surface of the ilium.lies behind the glut med and max.

Inserts- Aterosuperior aspect of the greater trochanter

Action- Has a stabilisng affect on the hip and is also a lateral rotator




image from google.com

Gluteus Medius
A fan shaped muscle situated on the lateral and upper part of the buttocks, just below the iliac crest, gluteus medius is broader above narrowing to its tendon below.
gluteus medius and minimus

Originates- Just below the iliac crest
should feel when lateraly rotating and abducting.

Inserts- Greater Trochanter

Action- Medial rotation
              Abduction

TRENDELENBURG GAIT IS A WEAKNESS OF GLUT MED.



IMAGE FROM http://depts.washington.edu/msatlas/214.html

Hamstrings
The hamstrings consist of three muscles semimembranosus, semitendenosus and bicep femoris. Their main roles are hip extension and knee flexion
Semitendenosus-
Origin- Medial facet of the lateral section of the ischial tuberosity

Insertion- Medial condyle of the tibia

Semimembranosus- -Situated on the lateral aspect of the thigh deep to semitendenosus. 

Originates- Lateral facet of ischial tuberosity

Inserts- Posteriomedial surface of the medial tibial condyle
image fromgoogleimages.com

Bicep Femoris- Sits on the posterolateral aspect of the thigh. It arises by 2 heads which are seperated by some distance.
Origins- The long head attatches to the lower medial facet of the ichal tuberosity
                The short head attaches lower half of the lateral lip of the linea aspera

Inserts- Lateral tibial condyle

To paplate you just resist  hip extension.

Tensor Fascia lata- 

Lies just below and inferior to the ASIS


Originates- Above to the anterior part of the outer lip of the iliac crest

Inserts- Into the Ilio Tibial Tracht

Action- Overlies the gluteus minimus and helps in FLEXION ABDUCTION and MEDIAL ROTATION of the hip joint.

PALPATION- Find ASIS come posterior and inferior. Get patient to abduct the hip and you will see a skinny muscle in the ITB band.



image from realbodywork .com

Adductor Longus,magnus and brevis

The main adductors of the hip with pectineus and gracilis

Adductor Magnus- The largest and most posterior of the adductor muscles it lies posterior to AL and AB.

Originates- Ichiopubic ramus

Inserts- Linea apera and the adductor tubercle on top of the medial condyle of the fumur.

Adductor Longus-  A long slender triangular muscle it sits on the medial aspect of the thigh

Originates- Superior ramus of the pubis

Inserts-  Middle third of the medial aspect of the linea aspera

image from mikeryannfitness.com

Adductor Brevis-  Again is triangular in shape and is situated on the medial aspect of the thigh.

Originates- The lateral part of the ramus of the pubis

Inserts- Medial aspect of the Linea apsera

PALPATION- Feel the adductor tendons contract when resisting against Adduction. will not be able to differentiate between all three of the muscles as they overlap.
Most adductor problems arise from proximaly then distally.

QUADRICEPS- The quads are made up of 4 muscles Rectus femoris, vastus medialis and lateralis nd vastus intermedius. The rectus femoris is the only muscle that originates from the hip joint while the other 3 take origin from the shaft of the humerus. They all form together tho to attach into the patella tendon.

Quads
  • Vast med has a teardrop aspect- Quickest of the quad muscles to suffer atrophy
  • Vat Lat- Finishes more proximal to the pattella
  • Vast Int - To deep to palpate as lies directly on the fumur



Rectus Femoris-  A bipenate muscle. It is seen to stand out on the anterior aspect of the thigh. It arises from 2 heads.
    • Originates- Straight head arises from the anterior inferior iliac spine
                    the reflected head arises from a rough area above the acetabulum
Inserts- Patella tendon

PALPATION- Get patient to lie on bed lift a leg the primary muscle is the rec fem. Attatches a couple of cm's below the AIIS resist against patient flexing there hip.


Vastus Medialis- Situated madially to the REC FEM. Most of the bulk shows in the lower third just below the patella.

Origin- From a line of attachments on the femur. on the anterior aspect of the intertrochantic line to the lip of the linea aspera and onto the medial supracondylar line of femur.

Inserts- Patella tendon

VASTUS LATERALIS-  Sits laterally to the Rectus Femoris

OriginGreater trochanterIntertrochanteric line, and Linea aspera of the Femur

Insertion- Patella tendon

Action-  Extends and stabilizers the knee


image from googleimages.com

Vastus Intermedius This is the deepest lying of the four quadracep muscles. This muscle is to deep to palpate as it sits on top of the femur.

Insertion- upper two thirds of the anterior and lateral surface of the femur.

Origin- Attatches to the deep surface of the tendon of rectus femoris and then onto the base of the pattella.

Action- Extension of the knee

Sartorius- A long strap muscle with flattened tendons at each end.. It is the most spurficial musclein the anterior compartment of the thigh. It is the longest muscle in the body

Origin- Anterior superior iliac spine ASIS

Inserts- Medial side of the shaft of the tibia

Action- Crossed leg sitting (flexion of the hip and knee, lateral rotation and abduction of the thigh and medial rotation of the tibia and femur)
Will help to produce and activity which involves flexion of the knee and the hip together.

PALPATION- Easiest to palpate at its proximal end just below the ASIS. Easier to palpate when the leg with the knee is slightly flexed.
If you resist against lateral rotation you will see the sartorius


ILLIACUS-A large fleshy triangular muscle situated mainly in the pelvis
Origin- upper and posterior two-thirds of the iliac fossa

Insertion- Lesser trochanter of the femur

Action- Hip Flexor

PALPATE- Almost impossible to palpate

PSOAS MAJOR - A large thick powerful muscle mainly situated in the abdominal cavity

ORIGIN- T12-L5 and anterior medial part of the transverse process of the vertabre. 
Image from legacy.owensbro.edu

Insertion- Posterior aspect of the lesser trochanter of the hip

Action- Flexor of the hip

PALPATION- Almost impossible to palpate as the main body lies within the abdominal cavity.



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