Define High Pass Filter - Pentair Sand Filters.
The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian criminal secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily. An offshoot emerged on the East Coast of the United States and in Australia during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration (see also Italian diaspora). In North America, the Mafia often refers to Italian organized crime in general, rather than just traditional Sicilian organized crime. According to historian Paolo Pezzino: "The Mafia is a kind of organized crime being active not only in several illegal fields, but also tending to exercise sovereignty functions – normally belonging to public authorities – over a specific territory..." The Sicilian Cosa Nostra is a loose confederation of about one hundred Mafia groups, also called cosche or families, each of which claims sovereignty over a territory, usually a town or village or a neighborhood of a larger city, though without ever fully conquering and legitimizing its monopoly of violence. For many years, the power apparatuses of the single families were the sole ruling bodies within the two associations, and they have remained the real centers of power even after superordinate bodies were created in the Cosa Nostra beginning in the late 1950s (the Sicilian Mafia Commission). Some observers have seen "mafia" as a set of attributes deeply rooted in popular culture, as a "way of being", as illustrated in the definition by the Sicilian ethnographer, Giuseppe Pitre, at the end of the 19th century: "Mafia is the consciousness of one's own worth, the exaggerated concept of individual force as the sole arbiter of every conflict, of every clash of interests or ideas." Many Sicilians did not regard these men as criminals but as role models and protectors, given that the state appeared to offer no protection for the poor and weak. As late as the 1950s, the funeral epitaph of the legendary boss of Villalba, Calogero Vizzini, stated that "his 'mafia' was not criminal, but stood for respect of the law, defense of all rights, greatness of character. It was love." Here, "mafia" means something like pride, honour, or even social responsibility: an attitude, not an organization. Likewise, in 1925, the former Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando stated in the Italian senate that he was proud of being mafioso, because that word meant honourable, noble, generous. Etymology There are several theories about the origin of the term. The Sicilian adjective mafiusu may derive from the Arabic mahyas, meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud meaning "rejected". Roughly translated, it means "swagger", but can also be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta. According to the Sicilian ethnographer Giuseppe Pitre, the association of the word with the criminal secret society was made by the 1863 play I mafiusi di la Vicaria (The Beautiful (people) of Vicaria) by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca, which is about criminal gangs in the Palermo prison. The words Mafia and mafiusi (plural of mafiusu) are never mentioned in the play, and were probably put in the title because it would add local flair. The association between mafiusi and criminal gangs was made by the association the play's title made with the criminal gangs that were new to Sicilian and Italian society at the time. Consequently, the word "mafia" was generated from a fictional source loosely inspired by the real thing and was used by outsiders to describe it. The use of the term "mafia" was subsequently taken over in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. The word "mafia" made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo, Filippo Antonio Gualterio. Leopoldo Franchetti, an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in 1876, saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia": "the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, and, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining vulgar criminals in other countries." He saw the Mafia as deeply rooted in Sicilian society and impossible to quench unless the very structure of the island's social institutions were to undergo a fundamental change. The real name: Cosa Nostra According to some mafiosi, the real name of the Mafia is "Cosa Nostra" ("Our thing"). Many have claimed, as did the Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta, thatX marks the bridge
As many times as I find myself on, under or around this bridge, I never seem to have too much trouble finding ways to photograph it. I set out on this morning though, with an idea already in mind, and that was to get the shadow of the bridge. I have noticed its shadow several times over the years, but strangely have never taken very many pictures of it. So I decided to change that. I got up fairly early for this because I knew if I waited too long into the day, the shadow would eventually retract and shorten under the bridge until the sun passed over and reprojected it to the east, but then it would be partially over land, and I wanted the western shadow and its watery expanse. As far as the rest of the technicals, I went with Efke infrared film, both for its slow speed and the slight surreal quality of the IR, which is light here considering there is no vegetation or blue sky, areas where IR has its strongest effects. I wanted the slow speed because I was hoping that combined with the red filter and a small aperture I could get my shutter speed down slow enough to soften the surface of the river and help eliminate any waves or texture which might distract from the shadow itself. All in all, I think it worked well. As an after-thought on this too, this was my first roll of film with my newest Pentax 6x7. I just picked up my fourth. My third still works, but is having... issues. And considering now that I can buy these cameras for less than it costs to repair (almost) I managed to get another in very nice condition for less than $200. By the way, I have never paid more than $200 for any of the four I have bought. Amazing that a camera capable of such high quality results (I can make prints from these negatives that measure in feet, not just inches, my largest so far being a 3.5x5 feet) can be so cheap. The other thought this shot reminds me of is my feelings about the use of the word "master". You see this word used a lot by photographers, generally I think by those with more to hide rather than show. I really dislike this term. Every once in a while someone will use it to describe either me in general or aspects of my photography. Generally I let it slide, sometimes I politely correct them. See, I think of mastering something as ultimately knowing it. Having reached the pinnacle of your abilities. Perfection in other words. And generally I think this is what is implied by many photographers who misuse this term. Master Landscape Photographer this... master fine art photographer that... Personally I think it is at best silly, and at worst limiting to the photographer who considers themself a master. Because what good does thinking you know everything do you? What it does is close you down to learning new things, as obviously if there is more you can learn about something, you are not a master of it. And yes I am splitting hairs here a bit, but we really do define ourselves and our perceptions by the words (and the ideas behind them) that we use to describe ourselves. I am not a master of photographing this bridge. Not even anywhere close. I actually hope and cross my fingers that I will never feel as such. The day I do, is the day I handicap my ability to find these new shots, and these new angles, simply because I won't believe any more exist. And how sad is that? I happily admit that every time I go out I learn something new. That is how I plan on keeping it.
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