Ostroumov S.A. Imbalance of factors providing control of unicellular plankton populations exposed to anthropogenic impact. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 341-343

Published: Ostroumov S.A. Imbalance of factors providing control of unicellular plankton populations exposed to anthropogenic impact.  - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 341-343.

4 tables. Bibliogr.12 refs. 

(Translated from DAN 2001. Vol. 379.  P.136-138).           ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online).  PMID: 12918370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].

Abstract, key words, full text and Addendum (added when the paper was put at the website; the addendum includs refs for more recent relevant publications) are below:

ABSTRACT: Ostroumov S.A. Imbalance of factors providing control of unicellular plankton populations exposed to anthropogenic impact.  - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 341-343. 4 tables. Bibliogr.12 refs.  (Translated from DAN 2001. Vol. 379.  P.136-138). ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online).  PMID: 12918370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].

The goal of this work was to analyze new experimental data on the effects of chemical pollution of aquatic medium on the abundance of unicellular plankton organisms. The following 6 types of effects of filter-feeders and chemical pollutants [surfactants and detergents (mixtures)] on phytoplankton organisms were found (examples were given in this paper in Tab.2): (1) Inhibition of growth (and abundance); (2) Growth stimulation in the presence of surfactants and detergents; (3) Decrease in abundance as a result of elimination of plankton cells from water by the freshwater mollusks Unio tumidus and rotifers; (4) Abundance decrease as a result of water filtration by the marine mollusks Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and Crassostrea gigas; (5) Decrease in the efficiency of cell elimination from water caused by the TX-100-induced (5 mg/l) inhibition of the filtration activity of the freshwater mollusks U. tumidus; (6) Decrease in the efficiency of cell elimination from water as a result of inhibition of the filtration activity of the marine mollusks Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas induced by surfactants and Avon Herbal Care (hair shampoo).

A new parameter and formula is suggested: the efficiency of cell elimination from water, ECE. The following maximum values of ECE were found (at the concentrations of the chemical, mg/l, in brackets):

(1) Synthetic surfactant OMO, Unio tumidus, 186.7 (50);

(2) Synthetic surfactant Losk-Universal, Mytilus galloprovincialis,  551.7 (7);

(3) Synthetic surfactant Tide-Lemon, Mytilus galloprovincialis,  206.9 (50);

(4) Synthetic surfactant IXI, M. galloprovincialis,   157.8 (10);

(5) Synthetic surfactant Deni-Automat, Crassostrea gigas, 10 800.0 (30);

(6) Synthetic surfactant Lanza, Crassostrea gigas,  261.7 (20);

(7) Synthetic surfactant Vesna-Delikat, Crassostrea gigas,  200.0 (1);

The tables in the paper: Factors of regulation of unicellular plankton abundance (Tab.1); effects of surfactants and detergents on phytoplankton abundance (Tab.2); 7 detergents inhibit filtration of 3 species of marine and freshwater molluscs (Tab.3); Mytilus galloprovincialis eliminates from water the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and algae Pavlova lutheri = M. lutheri as a result of filtration (comparing the 2 processes at the same time, Tab. 4).  The results obtained in this work demonstrated and proved that certain pollutants might cause a substantial imbalance of the factors controlling unicellular plankton populations. Direct and indirect (mediated by organisms-consumers) effects of certain surfactant-containing mixtures on unicellular plankton could sum with each other, giving rise to mutual amplification. This may cause a complete imbalance of the system. The conclusions made in this work may be applied to unicellular plankton of both marine and freshwater ecosystems, including the ecosystems subjected to eutrophication. The results contribute to issues of environmental safety and resource use sustainability.

DOI 10.1023/A:1011600213221. 

www.springerlink.com/index/QGJ756467J2R7470.pdf

Key issues, concepts, and terms that were considered:

Imbalance of factors providing control, unicellular plankton populations, anthropogenic impact,  the efficiency of cell elimination from water, factors of regulation of phytoplankton, plankton abundance; effects of surfactants and detergents,  filtration,  marine and freshwater filter-feeders, Mytilus galloprovincialis;

 Among the plankton organisms that were mentioned: Euglena gracilis Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, Monochrysis lutheri, Dunaliella viridis

Key words:

Imbalance of factors providing control, unicellular plankton populations, anthropogenic impact,  the efficiency of cell elimination from water, factors of regulation of phytoplankton, plankton abundance; effects of surfactants and detergents, filtration,  marine and freshwater filter-feeders, Mytilus galloprovincialis

this is the text of the paper without tables.

 

Imbalance of Factors Providing Control of Unicellular Plankton

Populations Exposed to Anthropogenic Impact

S. A. Ostroumov

Presented by Academician D.S. Pavlov  December 24, 2000

Received January 11, 2001

Moscow State University, Vorob’evy gory, Moscow,

119991 Russia

 

 

Populations of unicellular plankton organisms in

natural aquatic ecosystems are controlled by various

factors (Table 1). The anthropogenic impact on aquatic

ecosystems should be analyzed taking into account

both direct effects on the plankton organisms themselves

and indirect modification of plankton abundance.

The goal of this work was to analyze new experimental

data on the effects of chemical pollution of

aquatic medium on the abundance of unicellular plankton

organisms.

The species of unicellular organisms and mollusks

studied are shown in Tables 1–4. Marine mollusks were

grown at the aquaculture farm of the Institute of Biology

of Southern Seas, National Academy of Sciences

of Ukraine. The culture Pavlova lutheri (Droop) Green

1975 (=Monochrysis lutheri Droop 1953) was obtained

from the same source. Suspension of Saccharomyces

cerevisiae (S.I. Lesaffre, 59703 Marcg-France) was

used in some experiments. The freshwater mollusks

Unio tumidus were collected in the Moskva River

upstream the town of Zvenigorod. Changes in the abundance

of unicellular plankton organisms were detected

spectrophotometrically.

The efficiency of cell elimination from water (ECE)

was calculated using the following equation:

ECE =

[

A

/

B

]

 

´

100%,

where A is the optical density of the cell suspension

treated with the chemical agent studied (a surfactant,

detergent, etc.), which is expected to inhibit water filtration

by mollusks and cell elimination from water; B

is the optical density in the control samples (water containing

mollusks and unicellular organisms without the

chemical agent tested). The rate of water filtration in

the control was higher than in the experiment. As a

result, the rates of cell elimination and decrease in the

optical density of control water were higher than in the

experiment.

The effects of surfactants, surfactant-containing

washing mixtures (SWMs), and other contaminants on

phytoplankton and other plankton organisms [1]

revealed that the phytoplankton abundance may be

indirectly controlled by the surfactant-induced modification

of filtrating consumers (e.g., mollusks [1, 2] and

rotifers [3]), a contiguous link of the trophic chain of

the ecosystem. Many researchers showed that, under

certain experimental conditions, SWMs might cause a

decrease in the phytoplankton cell count. On the other

hand, the opposite effect of SWMs on phytoplankton

cell count was reported in [4–6]. Examples of these

effects are shown in Table 2.

Contamination with surfactant mixtures (SWMs

and others) exerts a dual effect on phytoplankton [1].

On the one hand, biogenic components of SWMs may

cause direct stimulation of phytoplankton (see, for

example, row 2 in Table 2). On the other hand, the surfactant

components of SWMs may inhibit the filtration

activity of the phytoplankton consumers (see, for

example, rows 5 and 6 in Table 2). Eventually, the

effects of thee two type are summed giving rise to an

increase in the phytoplankton cell count.

The activity of filtrators in natural ecosystems is an

important factor of phytoplankton abundance control.

Therefore, inhibition of filtration activity should be

regarded as evidence for imbalance of factors of phytoplankton

abundance control. The situation illustrated

by Table 2 (row 2) is also typical of other phytoplankton

species, including marine microscopic algae [6].

New experimental data obtained in this work show

that surfactant-containing mixtures (mainly, phosphorus-

containing surfactants) may reduce the elimination

of unicellular organisms from water in the course of its

filtration by mollusks (Table 3). The method of measurement

of filtration activity based on detection of the

efficiency of water filtration and resulting elimination

of unicellular organisms from water was suggested in

the preceding work [1]. For the sake of methodological

convenience, a suspension of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae

yeast cells was used in addition to phytoplankton

cells [1]. The efficiency of water filtration and elimination

of unicellular organisms (cells of phytoplankton

and S. cerevisiae) by the mussel Mytilus galloprovin-

cialis was comparatively assessed in special experiments.

The rates of elimination of cells of the two types

were close to one another (Table 4), the two processes

taking place in parallel. These data and results of similar

experiments suggest that the model system with

S. cerevisiae can be used for studying the elimination

of unicellular organisms from water by biological filter-feeders.

 

It should be noted that direct effects of surfactants

on unicellular plankton organisms in some cases are

very destructive. Certain species of phytoplankton are

very sensitive to synthetic surfactants. For example, it

was shown in our experiments that diatomic algae

Thalassiosira pseudonana (Hustedt) Hasle et Heimdal

are highly sensitive to Triton X-100 (TX-100), a nonionogenic

detergent [1, 7].

The results of this study can be regarded as additional

evidence in favor of earlier conclusions [1, 2, 8]

that contaminants (e.g., surfactants and surfactant-containing

mixtures) can inhibit the functional activity of

hydrobionts (e.g., mollusks) required for self-purification

of water [9, 10]. A system of criteria of ecological

hazard of anthropogenic factors was proposed in the

preceding work [11]. According to this system, the surfactant-

induced effects considered above are definitely

dangerous and undesirable.

The results obtained in this work show that certain

pollutants might cause substantial imbalance of the factors

controlling unicellular plankton populations.

Direct and indirect (mediated by consumers) effects of

certain surfactant-containing mixtures on unicellular

plankton are summed with each other, giving rise to

mutual amplification. This may cause a complete

imbalance of the system and abundant development of

unicellular plankton. Although the results considered in

this work were obtained mainly in benthic filtrating

consumers, similar conclusions were drawn from studies

of planktonic filter-feeders [3, 12]. In some cases, the

postulates put forward in this work may be applied to

unicellular plankton of both marine and freshwater ecosystems,

including ecosystems subjected to eutrophication.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to researchers

at Moscow State University,

V.V. Malakhov, E.A. Kriksunov, and other colleagues

for stimulating discussion. This study was

partly supported by the RSS, Open Society Foundation

(project no. 1306/1999).

I am grateful to my colleagues from the Institute of

Biology of Southern Seas, National Academy of Sciences

of Ukraine, G.E. Shul’man, G.A. Finenko,

V.I. Kholodov, A.V. Pirkova, A.Ya. Stolbov, and

A.A. Soldatov for their help and providing me with

marine mollusks. I am also grateful to N.N. Kolotilova

and N.E. Zurabova for expert assistance in some experiments.

 

REFERENCES

1. Ostroumov, S.A., Biologicheskie effekty poverkhnostnoaktivnykh

veshchestv v svyazi s antropogennymi vozdeistviyami

na biosferu (Biological Effects of Surfactants

in View of Anthropogenic Impacts on the Biosphere),

Moscow: MAKS, 2000.

2. Ostroumov, S.A., Donkin, P., and Staff, F., Dokl. Akad.

Nauk, 1998, vol. 362, no. 4, pp. 574–576.

3. Kartasheva, N.V. and Ostroumov, S.A., in Pishchevaya

promyshlennost’ na rubezhe tret’ego tysyacheletiya

(Food Industry on the Verge of the Third Millennium),

Moscow, 2000, pp. 245–247.

4. Kolotilova, N.N. and Ostroumov, S.A., Problemy

ekologii i fiziologii mikroorganizmov (Problems of

Microbial Ecology and Physiology), Moscow: Dialog,

2000.

5. Ostroumov, S.A. and Kolotilova, N.N., Vodnye ekosistemy

i organizmy (Water Ecosystems and Organisms),

Moscow: MAKS, 2000, vol. 2.

6. Aizdaicher, N.A., Malynova, S.I., and Khristoforova,

 N.K., Biol. Morya, 1999, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 234–

238.

7. Fisher, N., Maertts-Uente, M., and Ostroumov, S.A., Izv.

Ross. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Biol., 1996, no. 1, pp. 91–95.

8. Ostroumov, S.A., Donkin, P., and Staff, F., Vestn. Mosk.

Gos. Univ., Ser. 16: Biol., 1997, no. 3, pp. 30–36.

9. Ostroumov, S.A., Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2000, vol. 372,

no. 2, pp. 279–282.

10. Ostroumov, S.A., Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2000, vol. 374,

no.  3, pp. 427–429.

11. Ostroumov, S.A., Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2000, vol. 371,

no.  6, pp. 844–846.

12. Ostroumov, S.A., Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2000, vol. 375,

no.  6, pp. 847–849.

 

 

Table 1. Factors of regulation of unicellular plankton abundance (some important examples)

 

Table 2. Effect of surfactants and SWMs on phytoplankton organisms (examples)

 

Table 3. Summary of some results on the effects of surfactant-containing mixtures on filtration and trophic activities of mollusks

 

Table 4. Elimination of unicellular organisms from water as

a result of water filtration by M. galloprovincialis

 

 

ADDENDUM

(was added after publishing this paper, when the paper was put at the website)

Additional relevant bibliography is given below.

After publishing this paper the author did several new research projects that confirmed the main conclusions.

It was discovered that the inhibition of water filtration by surfactants and detergents was a typical response of a broad spectrum of filter –feeders including both marine and freshwater bivalves [ 1 ], rotifers [24 ], and crustaceans [ 34 ]. Filtration activity of invertebrates is a component of the contribution of aquatic biota to water self-purification. It is a part of ecosystem services towards maintaining and improving water quality.

The results of those detailed studies that used a variety of filter-feeders (suspension feeders) were summarized in the monographs [1, 36-38]. Those publications got positive evaluations in the reviews ([39-54] and others), and won several awards and diplomas (the list of them see below, after the list of the publications).

All in all, this paper together with other publications, including the more recent ones, contribute to better understanding of how aquatic biota participate in ecosystem services towards environmental and ecological stability, as well as environmental safety. The role of biota is necessary to understand and to protect in order to maintain the sustainable use of aquatic and biological resources.

1.      Ostroumov S. A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. ISBN 0-8493-2526-9 [new facts and concepts on assessment of hazards from chemicals, new look on the factors important to water quality, to sustainability; new priorities in environmental safety]

2.      Ostroumov S. A. Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view // Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum. 1998. V. 91(2). P.221-232.

3.      Ostroumov S. A., Donkin P., Staff F. Filtration inhibition induced by two classes of synthetic surfactants in the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis // Doklady Biological Sciences, 1998. Vol. 362, P. 454-456.

4.      Ostroumov S. A. The concept of aquatic biota as a labile  and vulnerable component of the water self-purification system - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs372p286biotalabil/

5.      Ostroumov S. A.,  Kolesnikov M. P. Biocatalysis of Matter Transfer in a Microcosm Is Inhibited by a Contaminant: Effects of a Surfactant on Limnea stagnalis. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000,  373: 397–399. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2000, Vol. 373, No. 2, pp. 278–280. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs373p397biocatallstag/

6.      Ostroumov S. A. An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function.- Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516.  http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs374p514bioreactor/

7.      Ostroumov SA. Criteria of ecological hazards due to anthropogenic effects on the biota: searching for a system. - Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2000; 371:204-206. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs371p204criteria/

8.      Ostroumov S. A. An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter out phytoplankton cells from water. - Biology Bulletin, 2001, Volume 28, Number 1, p. 95-102.

9.      Ostroumov S. A. Inhibitory Analysis of Regulatory Interactions in Trophic Webs. -Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, Vol. 377, pp. 139–141. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2000, Vol. 375, No. 6, pp. 847–849. [In the paper, the author developed a new approach to analyze the fundamental ecological issue, the interactions between organisms in ecosystems. He suggested to use the methodology of  inhibitory analysis to study interactions in trophic chains. Important situation is the top–down control of plankton by benthic filter-feeders. This control, as author’s experiments have shown, might be removed by chemical inhibitors (the latter may enter the ecosystem as pollutants)]. http://sites.google.com/site/2001dbs377p139inhibitory/; http://blog.researchgate.net/masterblog/299_Inhibitory_Analysis_A_new_method_for_analyzing_interactions_between_organisms_in_ecosystems;

10.  Ostroumov SA. The synecological approach to the problem of eutrophication. - Dokl Biol Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2001; 381:559-562. 

11.  Ostroumov SA. The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects. - Dokl Biol Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences).  2001; 380:499-501. http://sites.google.com/site/2001dbs380p499synerg/ 

12.  Ostroumov SA. Responses of Unio tumidus to mixed chemical preparations and the hazard of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects.  - Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2001; 380: 492-495. http://sites.google.com/site/2001dbs380p492unio/

13.  Ostroumov SA, Kolesnikov MP. Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. - Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2001; 379:378-381. http://sites.google.com/site/2001dbs379p378pellets/

14.  Ostroumov SA. Imbalance of factors providing control of unicellular plankton populations exposed to anthropogenic impact. - Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2001; 379:341-343. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/321_Discovery_of_the_system_where_chemical_pollution_could_impair_the_regulation_and_balance_in_the_abundance_of_phytoplankton_threat_to_ecological_stability_

15.   Ostroumov SA. Effect of amphiphilic chemicals on filter-feeding marine organisms.-  Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2001; 378:248-250. For the first time, oysters were used as the test-organisms in bioassay of synthetic surfactants and detergents.  The new data revealed a novel type of hazard to mariculture. New negative effects of surfactants and chemical mixtures on water filtering activity of Crassostrea gigas were discovered. http://sites.google.com/site/2001dbs378p248effammaroyst/

16.  Ostroumov S. A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification  // Hydrobiologia. 2002. vol. 469.  P.117-129.

17.  Ostroumov S. A. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and  concluding remarks // Hydrobiologia. 2002. v. 469 (1-3): P.203-204. 

18.  Ostroumov SA.  Identification of a new type of ecological hazard of chemicals: inhibition of processes of ecological remediation. -  Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2002; 385:377-379. 

19.   Ostroumov SA. System of principles for conservation of the biogeocenotic function and the biodiversity of filter-feeders. - Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2002; 383:147-150.

20.  Ostroumov SA.  A new type of effect of potentially hazardous substances: uncouplers of pelagial-benthal coupling. - Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2002; 383:127-130.

21.  Ostroumov SA. Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems. -  Dokl Biol Sci (Doklady Biological Sciences). 2002; 382:18-21.

22.  Ostroumov S. A. Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filter-feeding bivalves  // Hydrobiologia. 2003. Vol. 500. P. 341-344.

23.  Ostroumov S.A. Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards. - Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum. 2003.  96: 159-170.  Review.  PMID: 12852181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] http://sites.google.com/site/ostroumovsergei/publications-1/rivista2003criteria;

24.  Ostroumov S.A., Walz N., Rusche R. Effect of a cationic amphiphilic compound on rotifers. - Dokl Biol Sci. (Doklady Biological Sciences) 2003; 390: 252-255.

25.  Ostroumov S. A. On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2004, Vol. 396, Numbers 1-6, p. 206-211.

26.  Ostroumov S. A. Suspension-feeders as factors influencing water quality in aquatic ecosystems. -  In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems, R.F. Dame,  S. Olenin (Eds),  Springer, Dordrecht,  2004.  p.  147-164.

27.  Ostroumov S. A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders. - Hydrobiologia, 2005.  Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286 .

28.  Ostroumov S. A. On some issues of maintaining water quality and self-purification. - Water Resources [(Vodnye Resursy) ISSN PRINT: 0097-8078; ISSN ONLINE: 1608-344X; http://www.maik.rssi.ru/cgi-perl/journal.pl?name=watres&lang=eng]. 2005, Volume 32, Number 3,  p. 305-313.

29.  Ostroumov S. A. On the multifunctional role of the biota in the self-purification of aquatic ecosystems // Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2005, p. 414–420.

30.  Ostroumov S. A. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water self-purification in  marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory //  International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography.  2006.  Volume 1, No.1. p.111-118. [ISSN 0973-2667]. Publisher: Research India Publications, Dehli].  Basic elements are formulated for a qualitative theory of the polyfunctional role of the biota in maintaining self-purification and water quality in aquatic ecosystems. The elements of the theory covers the following: (1) sources of energy for the mechanisms of selfpurification; (2) the main functional blocks of the system of self-purification; (3) the list of the main processes that are involved; (4) analysis of the degree of participation of the main large taxons; (5) degree of reliability and the main mechanisms providing the reliability; (6) regulation of the processes; (7) the response of the system towards the external influences (man-made impacts); (8) the analogy between ecosystems and a bioreactor; and (9) conclusions relevant to the practice of biodiversity conservation. In support of the theory, results are given of the author's experiments which demonstrated the ability of some pollutants (surfactants, detergents, and some others) to inhibit the water filtration activity of marine filter-feeders (namely, the bivalve mollusks Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, and Crassostrea gigas).

31.  Ostroumov S. A.,  Widdows J.  Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of  three classes. // Hydrobiologia. 2006. Vol. 556, No. 1. Pages: 381 – 386. 3 Tables. Bibliogr. 37 refs. [For the first time the negative effects of the three surfactants on the filtration rates by marine mussels were presented in one paper. The xenobiotics tested represented anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TDTMA, a representative of a class of cationic surfactants; sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS, a representative of anionic alkyl sulfates; and Triton X-100, a representative of non-ionic hydroxyethylated alkyl phenols). Negative effects of SDS, TDTMA, and Triton X-100 on the filtration activity of marine mussels M. edulis and M. edulis / M. galloprovincialis were discovered. All three surfactants inhibited the clearance rates. This is the first publication of the negative effects of a cationic surfactant on Atlantic mussels Mytilus. The significance of the results for the ecology of marine ecosystems is discussed]. DOI 10.1007/s10750-005-1200-7; http://sites.google.com/site/ostroumovsergei/publications-1/hydrobiologia2006ostwidd; http://sites.google.com/site/3surfactantsfiltrationmytilus/;  http://www.springerlink.com/content/7166067538534421/

32.  Ostroumov S. A. Biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: from the theory to ecotechnologies. - Ecologica, 2007. vol. 15 (50), p.15-23. (ISSN 0354-3285; Belgrade). Some basic elements of a new theory for the biological mechanism for water self-purification are presented. Hydrobionts (aquatic organisms) are actively involved in various processes leading to water purification. Not only microorganisms (bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi), but also algae, plants, invertebrates, and many other groups of organisms are involved, which is discussed and analyzed in the paper. Results of the author's experiments that study the effects of various pollutants on aquatic organisms (freshwater and marine bivalves) are given. The theory is an innovative basis for developing ecological technologies to clean water and to upgrade its quality by using organisms and ecosystems [http://scindeks.nb.rs/article.aspx?artid=0354-32850750015O].

33.  Ostroumov S. A. Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2008, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 147-152.

34.  Vorozhun I. M., S. A. Ostroumov. On studying the hazards of pollution of the biosphere: effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) on planktonic filter-feeders. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2009, Vol. 425, p. 133–134. 

35.  Ostroumov S.A. Towards  the general theory of ecosystem-depended control of water quality. - Ecologica, [ISSN 0354-3285], 2009, vol. 16, No. 54, p. 25-32. Abstract:  A new set of ecological generalizations formulated in this paper represent, in a systematized form, the basic elements of the qualitative theory of biotic control of water quality and water self-purication in freshwater and marine ecosystems.  The theory contributes to a better understanding of the issues of stability and regulation in the biosphere. The theory is supported by the results of the author’s experimental studies of the effects exerted by surfactants, detergents and other pollutants on  aquatic organisms. http://sites.google.com/site/9enecologica16p25theory/

36.  Ostroumov S.A. Biotic Mechanism of Self-purification of Freshwater and Marine Water. (Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions, vol. 9) Мoscow: МAX Press. 2004. IV. 96 p., tab. Bibliogr. 59-85. Abstract in English. Section in English: p.53-58; ISBN 5-317-01120-5. [Diploma of the Academy of Aquatic Sciences, awarded in 2006; another Diploma to the book was awarded at the 7th International Conference ‘Aquatic Ecosystems, Organisms, Innovations’ (2005)]. 

37.  Ostroumov S.A. Pollution, Self-purification and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Мoscow: МAX Press.  2005.  100 p., tab.  ISBN 5-317-01213-9. (Diploma of the Academy of Aquatic Sciences, awarded in 2006).

38.  Ostroumov S.A. Aquatic organisms in water self-purification and biogenic migration of elements. Moscow. MAX Press. 2008. 200 p.  ISBN 978-5-317-02625-7.

39.  Prof. Yakovlev S.V.  (Full Member, Acad. Sci.) Review of the book: Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants on Organisms (2001) // Vestnik Russian Academy of Sciences. [ISSN 0869-5873; http://www.maik.ru/cgi-bin/list.pl?page=vestnik ], 2002. v.72, No.11, p. 1038-1047.

40.  Prof. Vasiliev О.F. (Full Member, Acad. Sci.) Review of the book: Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants on Organisms (2001) // Vestnik Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, [ISSN 1682-1696], 2002, v.2, No.3, p. 65.

41.  Prof. Braginsky L.P., Prof. Sirenko L.A. Review of the book: Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants on Organisms (2001)  // Hydrobiological Journal (published in Kiev, Ukraine ISSN: for PRINT: 0018-8166). 2003, v.39, No.3, p.115-118.

42.  Prof. Rozenberg G.S. (Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute of Ecology of the Volga Basin, Russ. Academy of Sciences) Review of the book: Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants on Organisms (2001) // Uspekhi Sovremennoi  Biologii (Advances of Modern Biology) [ISSN PRINT: 0042-1324; http://www.maik.ru/cgi-bin/list.pl?page=uspbio]. 2003.  No. 6, p. 618-619.

43.  Malakhov V.V. (Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Chair of the Dept. of Zoology of Invertebrates, Moscow State University), Review of the book (Ostroumov, S.A., 2004. Biotic Mechanism of Self-purification of Freshwater and Marine Water. MAX Press, Moscow) // Ecol. Stud. Haz. Solutions. 2004. Vol.10. p.138.

44.  Petrosyan V.S. Review of the book: Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. - Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions, 2007. vol. 12, p.117-119 (in English).

45.  Review of the book: Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. – Bulletin Samarskaya Luka  [http://www.ssc.smr.ru/ssc_sl.html] - 2007. - V. 16, No. 4(22). - P. 864-867.  Bibliogr. 10 refs.;  http://www.ssc.smr.ru/media/journals/samluka/2007/16_4_22.pdf;

46.  Review of the book: Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. //  Problems of Biogeochemistry and Geochemical Ecology. 2007.  No. 2 (4). p.108.

47.  Review of the book: S.A.Ostroumov. Biological Effects of Surfactants (2006). - Ecologica, 2008. т.15, No. 51, p. 71-72. (ISSN 0354-3285;  in English).

48.  Ermakov V.V. Review of the book:  Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. – Toxicological Review [Toksikologicheskij Vestnik; ISSN 0869-7922; http://www.rpohv.ru/magazin/], 2009, No. 2, p. 40.

49.  Toderas I.K. (Academician-Secretary of the Section of the Biological, Chemical, and Ecological Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova) et al. Novelty about ecological hazards of the chemicals that pollute aquatic environment. A review of the book: Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p.). – // Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Life Sciences (Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Moldovei. Stiintele Vietii; ISSN 1857-064X). 2007,  No. 2,  p.169-172. Bibliogr. 10 refs. ["The book is a new significant step toward better knowledge and understanding  the effects of chemical pollution on the biosphere" (p. 172)].

50.  Ecological sciences: from theory to practice and sustainable development. Review of the books by S.A.Ostroumov 'Pollution, Self-purification and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems' and 'Ecology and Hydrobiology'. - Ecological Systems and Instruments. [ISSN 2072-9952; http://www.ecoguild.ru/docs/2007esip.htm] 2006. No. 4. P.38-39.

51.  Prof. Rumyantzev I.S., Zimnyukov V.A. Review of the book:  Ostroumov S.A. Pollution, Self-Purification, and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Moscow. MAX Press, 2005, 100 p. ISBN 5-317-01213-9. – Ecological Chemistry [ISSN 0869-3498; http://www.thesa.ru/ecology/], 2006, v. 15, No. 3, p. 211-212 [on the author: Prof. I.S. Rumyantzev is the President, The Academy of Water Science].

52.  Prof. Abakumov V.A. Review of the book "Pollution, Self-Purification, and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems". Moscow. MAX Press, 2005, 100 p.  – Ecology of the Environment and Safety of Life Activity, [ISSN 1726-5428], No. 4 (34), 2006, p.88-89 [the reviewer recommended to publish a new edition of the book].

53.  Prof. Ermakov V.V. Review of the book "Pollution, Self-Purification, and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Moscow. MAX Press, 2005, 100 p." and of the collection of educational programs "Ecology and Hydrobiology" (Moscow. MAX Press, 2005). – Problems of Biogeochemistry and Geochemical Ecology. 2007. v.  1(3). p.122-124.

54.  Prof. Braginsky L.P., Kalenichenko K.P., Ignatyuk A.A. Generalized mechanisms of self-purification of natural waters.  Review of the book: Ostroumov S.A. Pollution, Self-Purification, and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Moscow. MAX Press, 2005, 100 p. // Hydrobiological Journal. [ISSN: for PRINT: 0018-8166] 2007, v. 43,  No. 6.  P.111-113.

 

The publications above [1-38] and the results in them won some awards and Diplomas, including:

Scientific Discovery Diploma No. 274  "Ability of synthetic surfactants to inhibit the filtration activity of bivalves"; priority of the discovery  9 August, 2000, according to the date of publishing the book: S.A.Ostroumov "Biological effects of surfactants in connection with the anthropogenic impact on the biosphere" (2000, MAX Press, Moscow). Diploma  of  31.01.2005, registration number 332; (about the discovery: http://idea.emind.ru/discovery/show/67);

P.L.Kapitza Medal for the scientific discovery;

Diploma of  the National Ecological Award  2004, for contribution to ecological security and sustainable development of Russia;

Diploma of the First Degree  for books "Biological effects of surfactants in connection with the anthropogenic impact on the biosphere" and "Biological effects of surfactants on organisms". The books were displayed at the exhibition of new books at the conference Aquatic Ecosystems and Organisms  (2004);

Diploma at the 1st International Forum on Conservancy of Nature (Moscow, 7-9th September 2005), signed by Co-Chairs of the Forum, Deputy Minister of Natural Resources of Russian Federation and Vice-President of the Trade Chamber of Russian Federation). 

Diploma of the journal 'Ecology and Life' (awarded 15 October 2005).

Diploma of the contest 'Sustainable use of natural resources and environmental protection – strategy of sustainable development of Russia in the 21st century' at the international conference 'Sustainable Development: Nature-Society-Man' (organized in 2006, Moscow,  by the Ministry of Natural Resources) for the paper by Ostroumov S.A. and Solomonova E.A. "On studies of water self-purification and interactions between pollutants (surfactants) and biota: searching approaches to issues relevant to sustainable use of water resources " (Directive of the Ministry of Natural Resources No.126 of 02 June 2006; the Diploma was signed by the Minister).

Diploma to the book 'Biotic Mechanism of Self-purification of Freshwater and Marine Water' by Dr. S. A. Ostroumov, awarded at the 7th International Conference ‘Aquatic Ecosystems, Organisms, Innovations’ (2005). Diploma of the Academy of Aquatic Sciences for the series of innovative publications on aquatic ecology, interactions between chemicals and organisms, and water self-purification, including the books 'Biological Effects of Surfactants in Connection with the Anthropogenic Impact on the Biosphere'; 'Biological Effects of Surfactants on Organisms'; 'Biotic Mechanism of Self-Purification of Freshwater and Marine Water'; 'Pollution, Self-Purification and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems'; 'Biological Effects of Surfactants', (awarded in 2006).

Diploma of the Academy of Aquatic Sciences 'for his innovative contribution to improvement of environmental and ecological education', including the book 'Ecology and Hydrobiology. Curricula of  Lecture Courses' (awarded in 2006).

Diploma of the Moscow Society of the Researchers of Nature (awarded in 2007).