Water Wheel Efficiency

water wheel efficiency
    water wheel
  • waterwheel: a wheel with buckets attached to its rim; raises water from a stream or pond
  • waterwheel: a wheel that rotates by direct action of water; a simple turbine
  • A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of free-flowing or falling water into useful forms of power. A water wheel consists of a large wooden or metal wheel, with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface.
  • (efficient) effective: able to accomplish a purpose; functioning effectively; "people who will do nothing unless they get something out of it for themselves are often highly effective persons"-G.B.Shaw; "effective personnel"; "an efficient secretary"; "the efficient cause of the revolution"
  • An action designed to achieve this
  • the ratio of the output to the input of any system
  • The state or quality of being efficient
  • skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort; "she did the work with great efficiency"
  • The ratio of the useful work performed by a machine or in a process to the total energy expended or heat taken in
water wheel efficiency - Principles of
Principles of Construction and Efficiency of Water-Wheels
Principles of Construction and Efficiency of Water-Wheels
This is a pre-1923 historical reproduction that was curated for quality. Quality assurance was conducted on each of these books in an attempt to remove books with imperfections introduced by the digitization process. Though we have made best efforts - the books may have occasional errors that do not impede the reading experience. We believe this work is culturally important and have elected to bring the book back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide.

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Brabus E V12 Coupe
Brabus E V12 Coupe
If you’ve got an itch for a truly unique Mercedes-Benz and about $650,000 sitting around then you too can join a rarefied class of Mercedes E-Class coupes. In this variation, the Brabus E V12 Coupe: an 800 horsepower (1,047 lb-ft torque!) 6.3 liter twin-turbo V12 bat out of hell will hit 60 mph in 3.7 seconds with a top speed of, get this, 230 mph. Of course, your 650 grand also gets you a Brabus coilover suspension, 19? wheels, completely custom interior, and carbon fiber… um… everything. What it won’t get you is legal council at the inevitable court date you’ll be summonsed to. Yes, the 2010 Brabus E V12 Coupe is one of the rarefied vehicles that garners tickets standing completely still. The sedan is followed by the two-door model: At the Geneva Motor Show 2010 the BRABUS E V12 Coupe celebrates its world debut as the world’s fastest Gran Tourismo. Based on the new Mercedes E-Class coupes, BRABUS builds a luxurious 2+2-seater in small-series production. It is powered by a BRABUS SV12 R Biturbo 800 twelve-cylinder displacement engine that produces 800 hp (788 bhp) / 588 kW of power and a peak torque of 1,420 Nm (1,047 lb-ft). BRABUS, accepted by the German Federal Vehicle Registration Agency (Kraftfahrtbundesamt) as an automobile manufacturer, offers this high-performance automobile capable of reaching speeds in excess of 370 km/h (230 mph) starting at 478,000 Euros MSRP. Like the fourth-generation BRABUS E V12 sedan the new E V12 Coupe is powered by a BRABUS SV12 R Biturbo 800 displacement engine. Drawing upon decades of experience in developing and building high-performance vehicles the twelve-cylinder engine was fitted into the engine bay of the two-door E-Class. The basis for this engine is the twelve-cylinder twin-turbo engine from the latest Mercedes 600 models. Displacement of the engine is increased from 5.5 to 6.3 liters (336 to 384 cu. in.) with the help of a special crankshaft, larger cylinder bore and correspondingly larger pistons. Both three-valve cylinder heads are optimized for mixture flow, and fitted with sport camshafts. Underneath the custom-made hood with integrated carbon-fiber RAM airbox is space for a completely newly developed air intake system. This twin-turbo system was designed from the ground up for the new E V12 generation. It includes two custom high-performance headers with integrated turbochargers and four water-to-air intercoolers. The stainless-steel high-performance exhaust system with free-flow metal catalysts was also custom-tailored for the confined space under the E-Class Coupe. In addition, the BRABUS engine specialists have developed a precision engine management system that controls injection, ignition and driving dynamics systems. The result is an optimal combination of impressive power yield and eco-friendly emissions that meet strict EURO IV exhaust limits. The BRABUS SV12 R Biturbo 800 engine is lubricated with high-tech motor oil from technology partner ARAL. It produces a rated power output of 800 hp (788 bhp) / 588 kW at 5,500 rpm. The even more impressive peak torque of 1,420 Nm (1,047 lb-ft), available already at a low 2,100 rpm, is limited electronically to 1,100 Nm (811 lb-ft). Power is transferred to the rear wheels via a reinforced five-speed automatic transmission and a BRABUS high-performance limited-slip differential. The BRABUS E V12 comes standard with state-of-the-art driving stability programs that can be deactivated at the push of a button. Performance of the coupe is as exceptional as that of the four-door model: The BRABUS E V12 Coupe sprints from 0 – 100 km/h (62 mph) in just 3.7 seconds, to 200 km/h (124 mph) in 9.9 seconds, and reaches 300 km/h (186 mph) after a mere 23.9 seconds. For street-legal use the top speed of the Gran Tourismo is limited electronically to 350 km/h (217 mph). Without the limiter the two-door twelve-cylinder car is capable of speeds in excess of 370 km/h (230 mph). This extreme performance also places highest demands on the vehicle’s aerodynamic properties. The BRABUS designers went into the wind tunnel to develop a body conversion kit made from high-strength yet especially lightweight carbon fiber. The kit combines sporty design and aerodynamic efficiency to perfection. The BRABUS front was designed to reduce lift on the front axle and to provide all radiators of the V12 with an optimal supply of cooling air. Air outlets in the sides route the air quickly away from the heat exchangers. Another important design feature was to provide the front brakes with cooling air. Integrated LED daytime running lights further increase active safety. A wider track means better directional stability at high speeds. Because of that BRABUS has developed special carbon-fiber sport fenders with integrated air vents for the front axle. Special carbon-fiber rear fenders add 60 millimeters (2.4 in.) to the width of the coupe on the rear axle. The BRABUS E V12 Coupe runs on especially wide wheels fitted with high-performance
~The Mundy's Mill Wheel~
~The Mundy's Mill Wheel~
This display was established in an effort to recognize the history of this site. Although hard to imagine, the Mundy’s Mill High School rests on a once open fertile field where corn, millet, sorghum were grown and live stock roamed. It is an attempt at providing insight into life of the early 20th century and the importance of this mill to the surrounding farming community. Deriving power from moving water is an old technology, but not an antique technology. In the late 1980’s hydroelectric power generation accounted for nearly one fifth of the world’s electrical power, Water wheels run because gravity causes a “mass” of water to fall some “distance” and the energy is absorbed by the wheel to do “work”. Because there is more than one way to absorb energy, water wheels have evolved in two classes: reaction and impulse. Reaction uses moving water to create a pressure differential much like an airplane wing. This is a turbine, Turbines are used in hydroelectric plants where high speeds are required to produce electricity, in contrast, impulse wheels turn slowly; they function by transferring the momentum of moving water to the machine. Similar to the energy transfer between one billiard ball hitting another. Because of this impulse, water wheels are very efficient and suited perfectly for large rivers or low flow streams. The Munyd’s Mill wheel is an important example in the evolution of the Over Show Water Wheel. The water is supplied over the top of the wheel where it is deposited into buckets. The importance of this wheel is in the shape of its buckets and the material used to build it. The manufacture of Overshoot Water Wheels was begun by Samuel Fitz, Hanover, PA in 1840. Early Fitz wheels were built of wood. John Fitz began studying the shape of the buckets and the material to increase its efficiency. In short, the principles were to make the wheel as light as possible and create a bucket to replace wood paddles, which could hold the water as long as possible and to minimize splash or water loss. The water wheel in the display is constructed of steel, with wood spokes and was most likely shipped “knocked down” in sections to make handling easier. The rim or buckets were sent in eight to twenty sections with printed assembly instructions and field assembled using rivets. It is important to note that this wheel was built by a craftsman’s hand; built without computer technology or mass production. The construction and shape of the delicate thin steel, gently curved to maximize the buckets carrying capabilities is amazing. You can almost see the dents on the rivets made by the strike of a ball peen hammer at the hand of one such skilled craftsman. Mundy’s Mill ground three types of grains corn, rye and wheat. The milling process for corn began just inside the front door at the sheller, which separated the corn kernel from the cob. The kernels and remaining trash or “chaff” were carried up an elevator to the loft. There, the kernel and chaff were dropped through a wind tunnel or air stream which blew the chaff away from the kernels. The heavier kernels would drop through the tunnel down a chute to the main floor into a final hopper, which provided a regulated flow of kernels into the grindstones. The grindstones dominated the first floor of the mill. They were enclosed in an impressive drummed shaped wood cabinet called a “vat”. The grindstones consisted of two large stones. The bottom stone or bed stone was stationary and the upper stone or runner was the only stone that turned. Grain or corn would enter the millstones though a hole in the runner. Grain was forced outward by angular grooves cut into the surface or both stones. As the grooves become shallower, the grain was crushed finer and finer until it emerged as unbolted (unsifted) meal or flour. The top stone was mounted to the top of vertical the center of the lower stone allowed the vertical shaft of the gear wheel or “bull gear” to pass through and carry the upper rotating stone. All of this machinery was operated by a series of belts and pulleys powered by the water wheel. Photography by Kim © All rights reserved

water wheel efficiency
water wheel efficiency
The Effect of Submergence and the Length of Entrance Spout On the Efficiency of the Overshot Water Wheel
This is an EXACT reproduction of a book published before 1923. This IS NOT an OCR'd book with strange characters, introduced typographical errors, and jumbled words. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book.