SEAFLOOR FEATURES - SEAFLOOR

Seafloor features - Retro flooring - Stainless steel floor lamp

Seafloor Features


seafloor features
    seafloor
  • The bottom of a sea or ocean; often covered with sediment
  • the solid surface underlying a body of water; also called seabed.
  • The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. At the bottom of the continental slope is the continental rise, which is caused by sediment cascading down the continental slope.
    features
  • (feature) sport: wear or display in an ostentatious or proud manner; "she was sporting a new hat"
  • Have as a prominent attribute or aspect
  • (feature) a prominent attribute or aspect of something; "the map showed roads and other features"; "generosity is one of his best characteristics"
  • (feature) have: have as a feature; "This restaurant features the most famous chefs in France"
  • Have as an important actor or participant
  • Be a significant characteristic of or take an important part in
seafloor features - Seafloor Geomorphology
Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat: GeoHAB Atlas of Seafloor Geomorphic Features and Benthic Habitats
Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat: GeoHAB Atlas of Seafloor Geomorphic Features and Benthic Habitats
The conservation of marine benthic biodiversity is a recognised goal of a number of national and international programs such as the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity (CBD). In order to attain this goal, information is needed about the distribution of life in the ocean so that spatial conservation measures such as marine protected areas (MPAs) can be designed to maximise protection within boundaries of acceptable dimensions. Ideally, a map would be produced that showed the distribution of benthic biodiversity to enable the efficient design of MPAs. The dilemma is that such maps do not exist for most areas and it is not possible at present to predict the spatial distribution of all marine life using the sparse biological information currently available.
Knowledge of the geomorphology and biogeography of the seafloor has improved markedly over the past 10 years. Using multibeam sonar, the benthic ecology of submarine features such as fjords, sand banks, coral reefs, seamounts, canyons, mud volcanoes and spreading ridges has been revealed in unprecedented detail.
This book provides a synthesis of seabed geomorphology and benthic habitats based on the most recent, up-to-date information. Introductory chapters explain the drivers that underpin the need for benthic habitat maps, including threats to ocean health, the habitat mapping approach based on principles of biogeography and benthic ecology and seabed (geomorphic) classification schemes. Case studies from around the world are then presented. They represent a range of seabed features where detailed bathymetric maps have been combined with seabed video and sampling to yield an integrated picture of the benthic communities that are associated with different types of benthic habitat. The final chapter examines critical knowledge gaps and future directions for benthic habitat mapping research.


Reviews and compares the different methodologies currently being used

Includes global case studies

Provides geological expertise into what has traditionally been a biological discipline

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Approaching the Kohala Mountains, State Route 19, near Kawaihae, Hawaii
Approaching the Kohala Mountains, State Route 19, near Kawaihae, Hawaii
I continued on my drive from Kona International Airport to Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historical Park along State Route 19. As I neared Kawaihae, Hawaii, Kohala, the shield volcano comprising the north tip of the Big Island, loomed in the distance. Kohala is the oldest of five volcanoes that make up the island of Hawaii. It is believed to have last erupted 120,000 years ago. The volcano is cut by multiple deep gorges, the product of thousands of years of erosion. A dike complex near the volcano's main caldera separates runoff into two major drainage basins, the Waipi?o and Waimanu valleys, and it maintains the volcano's shallow water table. Kohala supports a complex hydrological cycle that has been exploited to provide a water supply to island residents. Because it is so far from the nearest major landmass, the ecosystem of Kohala has experienced the phenomenon of geographic isolation, resulting in an ecosystem radically different from that of other places. Invasive species introduced by man present a problem to Kohala's ecosystem, as they push native species out of their habitat. There are several initiatives to preserve Kohala's ecosystem. Crops, especially sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), have been harvested on the leeward side of the volano for centuries as well. The northern part of the island is named after the mountain, with two districts named North and South Kohala. King Kamehameha I, the first King of the Kingdom of Hawaii, was born in North Kohala, near Hawi. The volcano is so old that it experienced, and recorded, a reversal of magnetic polarity (a change in the orientation of Earth's magnetic field so that the positions of the North and South poles interchange) that happened 780,000 years ago. Fifty different flow units in the top 140 m (459 ft) of exposed strata in the Pololu section are of normal polarity, indicating that they were deposited within the last 0.78 million years. Radiometric dating ranged mostly from 450,000 to 320,000 years ago, although several pieces strayed lower; this indicated a period of eruptive history at the time. Kohala was devastated by a massive landslide between 250,000 and 300,000 years before present. Debris from the slide was found on the ocean floor up to 130 km (81 mi) away from the volcano. Twenty kilometers wide at the shoreline, the landslide cut back to the summit of the volcano, and is partially, if not largely, responsible for the volcano losing 1,000 m (3,281 ft) in height since then. The famous sea cliffs of the windward Kohala shoreline stand as evidence of the massive geologic disaster, and mark the topmost part of the debris from this ancient landslide. There are also several other unique features found on the volcano, all marks made by the decimating collapse. The volcano's lava flows are sorted into two layers. The Hawi Volcanic layers were deposited in the shield stage of the volcano's life, and the younger Pololu Volcanics were deposited in the volcano's post-shield stage. The rock in the younger Hawi section, which overlies the older Pololu flows, is mostly 260 to 140 thousand years old, and composed mainly of hawaiite and trachyte. The separation between the two layers is not clear; the lowest layers may actually be in the Pololu section, based on their depositional patterns and low phosphorus content. The time intervals separating the two periods of volcanic evolution were extremely brief, something first noted in 1988. The United States Geological Survey has assessed the extinct Kohala as a low-risk area. The volcano is in zone 9 (bottom risk), while the border of the volcano with Mauna Kea is zone 8 (second lowest), as Mauna Kea has not produced lava flows for 4,500 years. Kohala, like other shield volcanoes, has a shallow surface slope due to the low viscosity of the lava flows that formed it. Events during and after its eruptions give the volcano several unique geomorphic features, some possibly resulting from the ancient collapse and landslide. The volcano is shaped like a foot; the northeast coast extends prominently across 20 km (12 mi) of shoreline, differing from the ordinarily smooth, rounded shape of Hawaiian volcanoes. Kohala is dissected by multiple, deeply eroded stream valleys in a west-east alignment, cutting into the flanks of the volcano. The northwestern slope of Kohala has few stream valleys cut into it, the result of the rain shadow effect—the dominant trade winds bring most of the rainfall to the northeastern slope of the volcano. The valleys are more than 800 m (2,625 ft) in depth, among the oldest and largest of which are the Waipi?o and Waimanu valleys. The volcano stayed active well into the formation of these mountainside valleys, as illustrated by later Pololu lava flows, which separated into two directions and often flowed into Pololu Valley. Recent seafloor mapping seems to show that the valley extends a short way into the seafloor, and it is believed the valley formed from the tumbled-out rock from the
spotted ratfish, Hydrolagus colliei
spotted ratfish, Hydrolagus colliei
The spotted ratfish has a very distinct appearance compared to other fish. The average female is about three feet (38 inches) long, much bigger in comparison to the smaller male. These fish have a smooth and scaless skin that is a silvery-bronze color, often with sparkling shades of gold, blue, and green. The speckled white spots along their back contributes to their name. Dark edges outline both the caudal and dorsal fins; whereas, the pectoral fins have a transparent outline. The ratfish’s pectoral fins are large and triangular, which extend straight out from the sides like airplane wings. They have a venomous spine located at the leading edge of their dorsal fin. The tail of the ratfish constitutes for almost half of their overall length and closely resembles a pointed rat-like tail. The body of this fish is supported by cartilage rather than bone, making it go limp when removed from the water. It has a duckbill shaped snout and a rabbit like face. Their mouth is small and contains forward directed, incisor-shaped teeth, that act as plate-like grinding teeth. One of their most mesmerizing features is their large emerald green eyes which are able to reflect light, similar to eyes of a cat.The spotted ratfish can be found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They can most commonly be found between the Pacific Northwest and the British Columbia. The range of depths in which this fish is found extends from 0 – 3,000 feet below sea level. Near 115° N. longitude and further north, the spotted ratfish lives close to the shore. On the southern end of their range, they live in deeper waters. Ratfish tend to move closer to shallow water during the spring and autumn, then to deeper water in summer and winter. Spotted ratfish can most commonly be found living near the bottom of sand, mud or rocky reefs of the ocean floor.The spotted ratfish swims slowly above the seafloor in search for food. Location of food is done by the sense of smell. Spotted ratfish are particularly drawn to crunchy foods like crabs and clams. Besides crabs and clams, the spotted ratfish also feeds off of shrimp, worms, small fish, small crustaceans, and sea stars. As the spotted ratfish is out hunting for prey, they must also keep a lookout so that they don’t become prey for other sea creatures such as: the soupfin sharks, dogfish sharks, pigeon guillemots, and Pacific halibut. Their usual hunting period is at nighttime, when they move to shallow water to feed.Like other sharks, spotted ratfish are oviparous. Their spawning season peaks during the spring to autumn months. During this time, the female releases up to two fertilized eggs into sand or mud areas of the seabed every 10 to 14 days. The extrusion process can last anywhere from 18 to 30 hours and the actual laying can last another four to six days. The egg sack is leather-like, five inches long, and has a filament connected to it which is used to attach itself to the ocean floor when it is let go by the mother. It is not unheard of to see a female ratfish swimming around her newly laid eggs, in hopes to prevent predators from finding them. Development of the egg can take up to a year, which can be harmful because the eggs are sometimes mistaken as inanimate objects by divers. When the young finally hatch, they are about 5.5 inches in length and continue to grow, reaching 11.8 inches in length their first year.-The ratfish is not typically eaten by humans being as it is not commercially caught for human consumption. As they swim gracefully about the ocean, the ratfish can be seen doing barrel rolls and corkscrew turns, as if they were flying. The root meaning of the ratfishes scientific name, Hydrolagus colliei, comes from the Greek words hydro, meaning water, and lagus, meaning hare.

seafloor features
seafloor features
Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat: GeoHAB Atlas of Seafloor Geomorphic Features and Benthic Habitats
The conservation of marine benthic biodiversity is a recognised goal of a number of national and international programs such as the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity (CBD). In order to attain this goal, information is needed about the distribution of life in the ocean so that spatial conservation measures such as marine protected areas (MPAs) can be designed to maximise protection within boundaries of acceptable dimensions. Ideally, a map would be produced that showed the distribution of benthic biodiversity to enable the efficient design of MPAs. The dilemma is that such maps do not exist for most areas and it is not possible at present to predict the spatial distribution of all marine life using the sparse biological information currently available.
Knowledge of the geomorphology and biogeography of the seafloor has improved markedly over the past 10 years. Using multibeam sonar, the benthic ecology of submarine features such as fjords, sand banks, coral reefs, seamounts, canyons, mud volcanoes and spreading ridges has been revealed in unprecedented detail.
This book provides a synthesis of seabed geomorphology and benthic habitats based on the most recent, up-to-date information. Introductory chapters explain the drivers that underpin the need for benthic habitat maps, including threats to ocean health, the habitat mapping approach based on principles of biogeography and benthic ecology and seabed (geomorphic) classification schemes. Case studies from around the world are then presented. They represent a range of seabed features where detailed bathymetric maps have been combined with seabed video and sampling to yield an integrated picture of the benthic communities that are associated with different types of benthic habitat. The final chapter examines critical knowledge gaps and future directions for benthic habitat mapping research.


Reviews and compares the different methodologies currently being used

Includes global case studies

Provides geological expertise into what has traditionally been a biological discipline

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