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Excerpt of the Week

Excerpt of the Week
Established 3/9/11 to share portions of manuals relevant to the unit, inaccessible to most, and short enough to be read in one sitting. 


Excerpt for the Fighting Position at Rockford

Caliber .30 Machine Gun (light) 
There are two types of emplacements for this gun: the horseshoe type and the two foxhole type. 

Horseshoe Type: (fig. 25)
The gun is placed in a firing position ready for immediate action. Lying down, if exposed to fire, the crew first excavate about 1/2 foot beneath the gun and then a similar depth for themselves, thus making an open shallow pit. The spoil is piled around in a parapet. 

The emplacement is competed by digging out a horseshoe-shaped trench, about 2 feet wide, along the rear and sides of the pit, leaving a chest high shelf to the center and front to serve as a gun platform (fig 25.). The spoil is piled around the emplacement to form a parapet at least 3 feet thick and low enough to permit all-around fire. 

This emplacement furnishes protection against small arms fire and shell or bomb fragments. In firm soil, this emplacement offers protection against the crushing action of tanks. In loose soil, logs about 8 inches in diameter, placed across the front rear and sides of the emplacement and embedded flush with the top of the ground, help make the emplacement resistant to the crushing action of tanks. When tanks appear about ot overrun the position, the gunners pull the weapon to the bottom of the trench at the rear of the emplacement and then crouch down to either side. 



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Excerpt of the Week:

TENT,  FIRE-RESISTANT,  PYRAMIDAL,  M-1934,  O-D

A M1934 Pyramidal with sides rolled up due to heat and hood omitted for same reason.

PURPOSE
The main purpose of this tent is for the quartering of personnel. The  maximum capacity of the tent is eight men when the tent stove is not used. However, for reasons of greater comfort and sanitation, it is limited to six men when the supply of tentage permits. When the tent stove is used, the maximum capacity is six men. Because of its distinctive shape, it is easily observed from the air; for this reason more  than usual care should be taken to camouflage it properly. This tent is a limited standard item of issue and will eventually be replaced by the squad tent; M-1942.

PITCHING  
a.  Preliminary arrangements. The commander designates the line on which the tents are to be erected. The line of tents is marked by driving a wall pin on the spot to be occupied by the right front corner of each tent. The interval between adjacent marking pins should be 30 feet. This leaves a space of about 2 feet between tents. Each tent is usually erected by the squad which will occupy it. It takes four men approximately 30 minutes to erect this tent.

b.  Procedure. 
(1) Spread canvas. Spread the tent on the ground which it is to occupy, door to the front. Lace the corners of the tent wall, tie the door fasteners, and place the right front corner foot stop over the corner pin already driven.
(2)  Drive left front corner wall pin. Carry the left front corner foot stop as far  to the left as it will go and drive a short pin through it in line with the right corner pin already driven.
(3)  Drive rear corner wall pins. Pull the rear corner foot stops to the rear and outward, so that the bottom of  the rear wall of the tent will stretch to complete the square. Then drive the pins through these foot stops with each rear corner pin directly to the  rear of its corresponding front corner pin, forming the square. Unless the canvas is wet, allow a small amount of slack before driving the corner pins.
(4)  Adjust center pole and hood. Have three men crawl under the tent and fit the center pole into the plate of the chain and plate assembly. Adjust the hood.
(5)  Raise tent. With a man steadying each corner line, have the men underneath the tent, raise the tent.
(6)  Adjust corner lines. Place the four corner lines over the lower notches of the large pins, which are driven in prolongation of the diagonals at such distances as to hold the walls and ends of the tent vertical and smooth when the eave lines are drawn taut.
(7)  Insert side-wall upright poles. Place the four side-wall upright poles, one at each corner, in a vertical  position with the spindle inserted through the grommet in the tent.
(8)  Drive remaining pins and adjust lines. Drive a small wall pin through each remaining foot stop and a large pin for each eave line in line with the four corner-line  pins already driven. Place the cave lines over the lower notches of the large pins and draw all the lines taut.

STRIKING
a. Remove pins. Remove all pins except those of the four corner lines and the two rear corner wall pins. Pile them, or place them in a container.

b. Remove the four side-wall upright poles.

c. Lower  tent. With one man holding each corner line, slowly lower the tent to the rear. Fasten the poles together and collect the remaining pins.

FOLDING.  
a.  Procedure for each tent.  
(1)  Pull canvas smooth. Pull the back wall and top canvas out smooth. This is done by leaving the rear corner wall pins in the ground with the foot stops attached. One man at each corner line and one or two men holding the chain and plate assembly perpendicular, pull the canvas to its limit away from the former front of the tent. This places the three remaining  sides of the tent on top of the rear side, with the door side in the middle.
(2)  Straighten right side of tent. To straighten the right side wall and top canvas, carry the right front corner over and lay it on the left front corner. Pull the canvas smooth and the bottom edges even. Throw the eave lines toward the chain and plate assembly. Return the right front corner to the right in order to cover the right rear corner. This folds the right side of the tent on itself with a crease in the middle. This fold will now be under the front side of the tent.
(3)  Straighten left side of tent. To straighten the left side wall and top canvas, carry the left front corner to the right and rear in a similar fashion. This will leave the front and rear sides of the tent lying smooth, and flat and the two side walls folded inward, each on itself.
(4)  Make sure the sod cloth is folded under all around the tent.
(5)  Fold tent length-wise. Fold in the  bottom of the wall approximately 1 foot. Fold the chain and plate assembly downward toward the bottom of the tent. Place the hood on the chain and plate assembly. The tent is now folded with the chain and plate assembly as a  core, all folds being placed down flat and smooth and parallel to the bottom of the tent. If each fold is compactly made and the canvas is kept smooth, the last fold will exactly cover the lower edge of the canvas.
(6)  Arrange lines on tent. Lay all the exposed eave lines, except the two on the center panel, along the folded canvas. Pull these two out and away from the bottom edge to their extreme length so that they may be used later for the final tying of the bundle.
(7)  Complete folding of bundle. Fold the bundle from one end toward  the center at the first seam (that is, the seam joining the first and second panels). Fold the bundle again toward the center so that the canvas already folded will come within about 3 inches of the middle panel. Fold the bundle once again to the far seam of the middle panel. Starting from the opposite end of the bundle, fold the first panel width in  half. Fold this again. This will bring it about 4 or 5 inches from the part of the tent already folded from the first end. Throw this second fold completely over the part already folded.
(8)  Tie bundle. Draw the exposed eave lines taut toward and across one another so that they are at right angles. Turn the bundle over on the eave lines. Cross the lines again on the new top of the bundle. Turn the bundle over again on the crossed lines and tie the lines with a slipknot.

b.  Bundle.  
(1) When properly tied and pressed together the bundle will be about 11 by 23 by 34 inches.
(2)  The unit designation, stenciled on the upper half of the middle width of canvas in the back wall, will appear on the exposed top of the bundle.


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Timely Excerpt of the Week
FM 21-5: Military Training


2.  PURPOSE OF MILITARY TRAINING.-- The ultimate purpose of military training is the assurance of victory in the event of war. Such assurance will guarantee the domestic peace and the international security of our people. The conditions which may face the Army of the United States in war cannot be definitely foreseen. It must be trained to function effectively in any type of war in any climate or terrain.

3.  ONE ARMY.--The training of the Regular Army, the National Guard of the United States, and the Organized Reserves will be so directed as to develop a single homogeneous force with the same standards of efficiency. For the missions of the various components of the Army of the United States, see appendix I. 

4. OFFENSIVE SPIRIT.-- a. Training will be so conducted as to develop in the Army the ability and desire to take offensive action in combat. Although training must include thorough instruction in defensive combat, it must be understood that such combat is only a means to a definite end - offensive action. See FM 100-5. 

b. To develop an offensive spirit a major objective of training must be the development of aggressive, resolute, thoroughly capable individuals and units whose skill, initiative, and confidence have instilled in them the desire to close with the enemy and destroy him. 

5. QUALITIES TO BE DEVELOPED.--Successful offensive action demands that military training develop in the individual and in the unit the following qualities:
Morale.
Discipline.
Health, strength, and endurance.
Technical proficiency.
Initiative.
Adaptability.
Leadership.
Teamwork.
Tactical proficiency.

6. CONDUCT OF TRAINING.-- In order to accomplish its purpose efficiently, military training will be conduct by the use of decentralization, balanced progressive training, and 
applicatory tactical exercieses. 

7. DECENTRALIZATION.--Responsibility for and control of training are functions of command. It is the duty of each commander to inform his subordinate commanders of the objectives and standards to be attained by training and of the time available for the purpose. The initiative and leadership of the subordinates is developed by the responsibility for choice of methods and for the details of execution.

b. When time, means, or suitable instructors are lacking, the technical training of individuals, particularly specialists, who must be trained to perform identical or similar tasks may be conducted under centralized control. Such control gains speed in basic and technical training and thus permits the further decentralization of training in those subjects which best promote the development of initiative and leadership.

c.  Supervision and inspection are made by higher commanders to determine progress in training. Such supervision must not relieve subordinates of their personal responsibility or hamper the exercise of their initiative.

8. BALANCED PROGRESSIVE TRAINING.--a.  Training in all subjects progresses from the elementary to the more advanced subjects. The individual must be physically hardened, qualified to march, to use his weapons, and to care for himself and his transportation in the field. Training in these essential basic and technical subjects must be so balanced as to prepare the individual to take the field at any time.

b. Tactical and logistical training begins with the operations of the small unit. Concurrent training of higher and lower units gives to all an appreciation of the part each subdivision must play in the task of the team as a whole. Training of higher units must  not be attempted until the lower unit has reached a stage of training which permits it to gain further instruction by combined  training with other units. For example, only when the battalions are well trained will they take part in the field exercises of the regiment, the combat team, and the combined training of larger units.

9. APPLICATORY TACTICAL  EXERCISES.--Use of this type of exercise should be commenced as early in training as practicable. These exercises are direct training for combat. All other phases of military training directly or indirectly prepare for tactical exercises. They permit the individual or unit under training to apply the doctrine being taught to an assumed or outlined tactical situation.


How this relates to the Training Weekend
First off it provides a general framework for what we're trying to accomplish. We don't necessarily have the "luxury" of having you every hour of every day for several weeks, so the "balanced progressive training" sort of gets thrown out the window, but the theory is still there. We'll start you out on basic things (facings, manual of arms, marching) and move up to more advanced things (taking a German MG position?). All within 8 hours.

Believe it or not, we try, subtly, to work on these things at every event. We have seen individuals improve and the unit improve in several categories. Dixon was a grand example of how well we're doing (did you notice?) and a great 'progress report' for the NCOs. 

As far as "qualities to be developed", I think there's a unit award in this at the AAR meeting every year (something for us to scheme think on).


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Excerpt of the [insert fuzzy period of time here] - 6/8/11
Keeping with the theme of semi-related to the unit excerpts.

W.A.C. Field Manual
Physical Training
FM 35-20


WE ARE FIGHTING A TOTAL WAR
TOTAL WAR calls every man, woman, and child into service. This type of war has been forced upon us. For over a decade the women of Germany, Italy, and Japan have been training for war. Their duties range from front line combat to manual labor. 

The women of the United Nations have been swift to take up the challenge. Close to a half million British women are in uniform today. The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) performs duties similar to yours. ATS serves as motor mechanics, cooks, truck drivers, radio locators, gunnery researchers, and in many other jobs formerly held by men. 

The women of Russia are fighting for their lives. Thousands are with the Army in the field, serving as technicians, radio operators, messengers, engineers, drivers, and medical personnel. Some serve as sharpshooters. As guerrillas, Russian women have taken a heavy toll of the invaders. Women dig trenches and carry munitions on their backs to the troops. 

The women of Japan know the true, bitter meaning of war. For years they have toiled 12 and 14 hours a day in the munitions plants at Nagoya and Osaka. Thousands are serving with the Imperial Army as messengers, radio operators, orderlies, and drivers. Reports from combat zones tell of women in uniform, serving with shock troops and piloting combat planes. 

Women in uniform have long been a familiar sight in Germany and Italy. The Nazi Labor Service drafts all girls between 17 and 25 who are not usefully employed in the factories or the Army Auxiliary services. Younger girls are enrolled in the Hitler Girls' Organization. German women are in the war, to the limit. 

The war will not be won by women alone. But victory in total war will go to the side which utilizes the most women, and the fittest.



YOUR JOB: TO REPLACE MEN
YOUR TASK is to do the things which, if you did not do them, would have to be done by men taken from the fighting ranks; men whose presence in the battle line may mean victory, whose absence might mean defeat.

You must be able to do these things alone and unaided. You must be ready 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and every day of the month. War makes no distinction between sexes. When the order comes you must obey it-without question and without excuse. None of your duties will be beyond the capacity of a woman in fit condition. But nearly all military duties will be beyond the ability of a woman who lacks strength, who tires easily, whose mind and body do not work in swift accord, who is constantly prey to illness and moods.

None of us knows what the future holds forth. None of us can foretell what emergencies may arise, nor what tasks we may be called upon to perform. Better to build up for the job-today than to fall down on the job-tomorrow.

Men are naturally endowed with greater physical strength than women. But women at war, abroad and at home, are proving daily that woman's strength, properly trained and developed, is ample to perform hundreds of vital wartime tasks. And that women, in achieving the muscular tone and control essential to their work, realize greater poise, more grace, and better health than they ever enjoyed before.

The Corps must sustain itself. Except for the hardest physical labor, you must do every job that comes your way. When a man moves out, be ready to take over. Be ready to give the job all you have. Be ready with everything it takes to do it well.



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Excerpt of the Week 5/9/11

Who are those guys?
A little history about a unit we see quite a bit and will probably see more of in the near future



Following World War I, the National Defense Act of 1920 created the authority to form the 45th Infantry Division from the four states of Oklahoma, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.  The division was organized in 1923, and Oklahoma members camped together for the first time at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, in 1924.

In the period pre-dating World War II, the division was called upon to maintain order in times of disasters and keep peace during periods of political unrest. Governor John C. Walton used the Guard to prevent the Legislature from meeting when they were preparing to impeach him in 1923. Governor William H. Murray’s calls to duty included the enforcement of closing of banks and keeping open a free bridge on the Red River, in spite of a federal court order that it not be opened.

In September of 1940 the division was ordered into federal service for one year to engage in a training program. The division’s time in federal service began at Ft. Sill, and at the end of the first year they had participated in the Louisiana Maneuvers. By the end of the year the world situation had worsened, and the Thunderbirds continued their training and prepared for war.

The Thunderbirds trained at Fort Sill, OK; Camp Barkeley, TX; Fort Devens, MA; Pine Camp, NY [Kyle's Note: Pine Camp = Present day Fort Drum]; and Camp Pickett, VA. They had trained hard for their part in World War II, and on July 10, 1943 the division participated in their first of four amphibious landings. In all the division served 511 days in combat; fighting their way across Sicily, Italy, France, and Germany. The National Guard Division of the southwest became highly regarded by both regular army forces and the enemy for their valiant efforts and fighting abilities.

The 45th Infantry Division served with General George S. Patton’s U.S. 7th Army during the Sicilian campaign, and when the fighting was done, the commander had this to say about the division, “Your division is one of the best, if not the best division in the history of American arms.”

Following World War II the division reverted back to National Guard status, and the 45th Infantry Division became an all-Oklahoma organization. Weekly evening drill periods were again held in armories statewide, and Fort Sill was the site of their annual summer encampment.

In June of 1950 South Korea was invaded by North Korea this action led to the second federal mobilization of the 45th Infantry Division. The Thunderbirds were one of only two National Guard divisions to see combat in the Korean War; the other being the 40th of California.

Training for Korea began at Camp Polk, and in March of 1951 the division shipped out for Hokkaido, Japan for a continuation of their training. The move to Korea was made in December, 1951. The division served in the Yonchon-Chorwon area, and in sectors fronting Old Baldy, Pork Chop Hill, Heartbreak Ridge, and Luke’s Castle. The majority of the Oklahoma’s Guardsmen began returning to the States in the spring of 1952, but the division remained in Korea until the end of the conflict in 1953. In all the 45th Division saw 429 days in battle, participating in 4 campaigns.

After Korea the division reverted to their stateside status as a National Guard unit with reorganization in 1959 changing the structure of the division from a triangular to a pentomic division. The pentomic division was made up of 5 battle groups, each smaller than a regiment, but larger than a battalion. In January 1969 the 45th Infantry Division was disbanded. The former division was restructured into an infantry brigade, an artillery group, and a support command, with state headquarters providing general administrative and logistical support. This did not mean the end of the Thunderbird; the Thunderbird patch was retained by all the organizations, with the exception of the state headquarters, which continued to be identified with the Indian-head patch.








Except of the "Week" of 4/6/11
This week's excerpt comes from the Signal Corps, courtesy of our friend below. 
The fabulous lineman.

FM24-9
COMBINED UNITED STATES-BRITISH RADIOTELEPHONE (R/T) PROCEDURE 

1. Purpose.—This radiotelephone- procedure (R/T) shall be used in combined operations of the United States and British Forces. The use of matters shown in brackets, as [Hullo], is optional.

2. General Instructions.—a. Messages transmitted by radiotelephone are not necessarily written down, but operators should whenever possible make a short note of their purport. They must, therefore, be kept short and to the point. This brevity is best achieved by the use of standard phraseology. Messages which must be given by the receiving operator to another person should preferably be written down.

  1. Speech over the radiotelephone will be clear and slow with even emphasis upon each word. Words will not be run together.
  2. Messages will be spoken in natural phrases and not word by word.
  3. In the interests of security, transmission by radiotelephone will be as short and concise as possible consistent with clearness.
    (See par. 9e.)
3. Phonetic Alphabet.—When necessary to identify any letter of the alphabet the standard phonetic alphabet is to be used.
This alphabet is listed below:

A-Able
B-Baker
C-Charlie
D-Dog
E-Easy
F-Fox
G-George
H-How
I-Item
J-Jig
K-King
L-Love
M-Mike
N-Nan
O-Oboe
P-Peter
Q-Queen
R-Roger
S-Sugar
T-Tare
U-Uncle
V-Victor
W-William
X-X-Ray
Y-Yoke
Z-Zebra


a. Encrypted groups—LUXOW will be spoken as "Love Uncle Xray Oboe William."

b. Difficult words will be both spoken and spelled. Example: "Catenary—I spell—Charlie Able Tare Easy Nan Able Roger Yoke—Catenary.''

4. Pronunciation of Numerals.—When figures are transmitted by radiotelephone the following rules for their pronunciation will be observed

0 - Zero
1 - Wun
2 - Too
3 - Thuh-ree
4 - Fo-wer
5 - Fi-viv
6 - Six
7 - Seven
8 - Ate
9 - Niner


5. Call Signs.—Call signs composed of letters or letters and figures must be transmitted by means of the phonetic alphabet and numeral pronunciation.

Call sign AB shall be transmitted as "Able Baker."

Call sign P3 shall be transmitted as "Peter Three."

6. Component Parts of a Message.—Every radiotelephone message is composed of three basic parts: the Call, including precedence (priority), if any; the Text (subject matter); and the Ending.

The Call

a. Form.—The call of a radiotelephone message may take one of the following forms:


Case I, full call: Call sign, receiving station - This is - Call sign station calling
Example: Able Baker this is Peter Three

Case I, abbreviated call: This is - Call sign station calling
Example: This is Peter Three


b. Precedence (priority).*—Precedence designations are seldom used in voice (R/T) procedure, but if used will be spoken in clear as the last part of the call, for example, "PRIORITY"* or "IMPORTANT",* etc.

* Table of United States-British Precedence (Priorities).

United States                    British
Urgent                              Emergency
Operational Priority           Immediate
Priority                             Important

The Text (Subject matter)
The text (subject matter) may consist of plain language, code words, or figures. If it is necessary to spell out a word, the phonetic alphabet will be used.

The Ending

Every transmission will end with one of the following procedure words:

a. Over: My transmission is ended and I expect a response from you.
b. Out:  This conversation is ended and no response is expected.

7. Time of Origin.—The time of origin when employed will be expressed in four digits and will be preceded by the word "Time." The four digits will, when so ordered, be followed by the zone suffix letter.

8. Procedure Phrases.—It is inadvisable to lay down precise wording for all procedure phrases likely to be required in radiotelephone work. However, the following have been adopted:

Roger
"I have received all of your last transmission."

Acknowledge
Used by originator: "Let me know that you have received and understand this message."

Wilco
"Your last message (or message indicated) received, understood, and (where applicable) will be complied with."

How do you hear me?

Speak slower

Wait
If used by itself: "I must pause for a few seconds." If the pause is to be longer than a few seconds, "Wait" "Out" should be used. If "Wait" is used to prevent another station's transmitting, it must be followed by the ending "Out."

Say Again
"Repeat"

I Say Again
"I will repeat."

* NOTE.—Except when written into the text of a message by the originator, the word "Repeat" or any phrase involving ''Repeat" will never be spoken in radiotelephone {HIT) communication since it has a distinct operational meaning to the British Army. When used by the Royal Artillery it means that the salvo last ordered will be fired again at the same range.

Verify

"Check coding, check text (subject matter) with the originator and send correct version"

Message for you
"I wish to transmit a message to you."

Send your message
"I am ready for you to transmit."

Read Back
"Repeat all of this message back to me exactly as received after I have gen 'Over'."

That is correct
"You are correct."

Words Twice
a. As a request - "Communication is difficult. Please send every phrase (or code group) twice."
b. As information - "Since communication is difficult every phrase (or code group) in this message will be sent twice."

Correction
"An error has been made in this transmission (or message indicated). The correct version is ------."

Wrong
"What you have just said is incorrect. The correct version is ------."

Groups
"The number of groups in this code or cipher message is ------."

Break
"I hereby indicate the separation of the text from other portions of the message." To be used only when there is no clear distinction between the. text and other portions of the message. 





The Belated Excerpt of the Week of 3/22/11:
(admittedly a bit long)
(unit commanders reading this, take heed! [yes, I would like to see a reenactment of an educational program at an event])

FM 21-10 
Military Sanitation

CHAPTER 2
SECTION 5
VENEREAL  DISEASES

25.  RESPONSIBILITY.  Venereal  disease  (VD)  control  is  
the  responsibility  of  the  unit  commander,  who
must  initiate  and maintain  the  VD  control  program.
The Medical  Department  supplies  him with  information  
and  advice  as  to  suitable  control  measures.  The
individual  soldier,  in  turn,  is  responsible  for  carrying
out measures  designed  to  protect  his  own  health  and
in  turn  that  of  his  unit. The  venereal  disease  rate  of
a  unit  therefore  is  a  fair  index  of  its  discipline,  
training,  and  administration.

26.  KINDS  AND  CAUSES.  a.  There  are  five  recognized
venereal  diseases,  each  caused  by  a  different
germ:

Disease                                            Germ                                
Gonorrhea  (clap,  dose,  gleet)         Gonococcus germ

Syphilis  (pox,  bad-blood,  lues)        Spiral-shaped  germ, treponema  pallidum

Chancroid  (soft  chancre, buboes)     Bacillus  of  Ducrey

Lymphogranuloma  venereum             Filterable  virus
(tropical  bubo)

Granuiloma  inguinale                        Donovan  body
(tropical  sore)

b.  With  rare  exceptions,  all  of  these  diseases  are
acquired  through  sexual  intercourse.  The  number  of
cases  of  venereal  disease  in  any  unit  depends  on  two
factors:
(I)  The  number  of  sex  contacts  with  infected
women.
(2)  The  number  of  these  exposures  that  are  unprotected  
by  adequate  prophylaxis.

27.  CONTROL  MEASURES.  The VD  rate  can be  cut
down  effectively  by  carrying  out  the  following  measures:
a.  Reduce  sex  exposures.  The  only  completely
satisfactory  way  to  prevent  venereal  disease  is  to  avoid
promiscuous  sexual  intercourse  altogether.  Avoidance
of  sex  relations  is  not  harmful  to  the  soldier's  health
or  well-being.  The  fact  cannot  be  overlooked,  however,  
that in  any  unit there will  be  some  men who  will
have promiscuous  sex  relations.  The  degree  of  promiscuity  
that  is  carried  on  will  depend  to  a  large  extent
on  the  backgrounds  of  the  men  in  the  unit,  and  on
the  particular  Army  environment  in  which  they  find
themselves.  It  is,  of  course,  impossible  to  do  anything
to  change  the  backgrounds  of  the  men,  but  it  is  possible
 to  do  something  about  the  environment.  The
following  measures  will  help  to  reduce  the number  of
sex  exposures:

(1)  Provision  of  substitute  activities  on  the  post,
such  as  athletics  and  wholesome  recreation  of  other
kinds.  These  will  catch  the  attention  and  interest  of
the  men,  and  help  to  occupy  off-duty  time.
(2)  Limitation of  the activities  of professional  prostitutes
and  pick-ups.  Commanding  officers  can  do much
in  this respect  by working with  the civilian  authorities.
(3) Declaring  houses  of  prostitution  and  establishments  
which  serve  as  places  of  pick-up  or  exposure "off  limits."
b.  Increasing  the use  of  prophylaxis.  When  properly  used,  
venereal  prophylaxis  offers  a  good  protection against  infection.  
The  following  equipment  and  facilities  will  be  made  available  
to  all  men  in  the  Army with  full  explanation  of  how  they
are  to  be  used:

(I) Mechanical prophylaxis. The  condom  or  rubber
offers  considerable  protection  against  infection  if  used
properly.  It  helps  to  prevent  the  transfer  of  the  germs
from  one  sex  partner  to  another,  but  it  must  be  applied  
before  contact  and worn  throughout  the  exposure.  Condoms 
are  provided  free  through  medical supply  channels  and  
must  be  made  easily  available  to the  unit  at  all  times.  
They  can  also  be  purchased  at Army  exchanges.
(2)  Chemical  prophylaxis.  This  helps  to  destroy
germs  after  they  have  been  transferred  from  one  person  
to  another.  It  is  most  effective  when  used  within
1  hour after  exposure,  and  becomes  progressively  less
effective  after  that.  Drugs  for  destroying  gonorrhea
germs  must  be  injected  into  the  urinary  canal  while
drugs  to  kill  the  germs  of  other  venereal  diseases  are
applied  externally.  Chemical  prophylaxis  may  be  supplied  
in  two  forms:  the  individual  PRO-KIT,  and  by
the  official  prophylactic  stations.  PRO-KITS  are  provided 
free  through medical  supply  channels and should
be  made  available  to  each  unit  at  all  times.  They
should  also  be  stocked  by  Army  exchanges.  Prbphylactic  
stations  are  maintained  on  every  military  installation  and  
in  adjacent  communities  where  there are  enough  troops  
to  warrant  them.  They  should  be conveniently  placed  and  
their  locations  posted  in  the unit  area.  They  must  be  kept  
clean  and  operated  by well-trained  attendants.
c.  Reduction  in sources  of  infection.  Ordinarily  the
sources  of  infection  are  not  under  military  control.
Therefore,  the  problem  of  reducing  their  number  is
primarily  a  function  for  civilian  health  and  law  en-.
forcement  authorities.  This  does  not  mean,  however,
that  the  Army  can  do  nothing  about  them.  The  
cooperation  of  the  Army  in  working  with  the  civilian
authorities  is  of  great  importance.  It may  be  carried
out  in  the  following  ways:
(1)  Information  about  the  probable  source  of  infection  
should  be  obtained  from  each  soldier  who  has  a
venereal  disease,  and  should  be  recorded  on WD AGO
Form  8-148.  This  form  should  then  be  sent  immediately  
to  the  health  officer  in  the  area  where  the  suspected  
source  lives.  Special  attention  should  be  given
to  sources  of  infection  from  syphilis.  The  purpose  of
obtaining  this  information  should  be  explained  carefully  
to  the  soldier 'in order  to  secure  his  cooperation.
He  should  be  assured  that  the  information  will  be
treated  confidentially  and  that  no  mention  of  his
name will  be  made  to  his  contact.
(2)  Encouragement  of  civilian  health  departments
to provide  adequate  facilities  for finding,  treating,  and,
if  necessary,  quarantining  infected  girls.
(3)  Protection  of  civilians  against  infection  by military  
personnel.  This  places  an  additional  responsibility  upon  
the  Army  to  find,  treat,  and  restrict,  if
necessary,  personnel  with  venereal  diseases.

28.  ADMINISTRATION  OF CONTROL PROGRAM.
The  commanding  officer  of  a  unit  is  responsible  for
the  promotion  and  execution  of  a  venereal  disease
control  program,  but  experience  has  shown  that  the
responsibility  should  generally  be  delegated  to  and
centralized  in  one  officer  who  is  competent  to  study
the  problem  and adapt  a  program  to meet  local  needs.
Therefore,  all  posts,  camps,  and  stations  are  required
to  have  a medical  officer  designated  as VD  control officer.  
He  may  serve  in  this  capacity  either  full  or  part
time.  In  divisions,  the medical  inspector  performs  the
duties  of  the  VD  control  officer.  His  duties  include
the  following:
a.  Analysis  of  VD  rates  in  the  command  in  order
to give  special  attention  to  those  units with  high rates.
b. Keeping  an  up-to-date  spot  map  from  data  obtained  
at  prophylactic  stations  and  from  WD  AGO
Form  8-148  showing  places  of  pick-up  and  exposure.
Furnishing  this  information  to  the  civilian  authorities
concerned.
c.  Making  sure  that  there  are  enough  prophylactic
stations  and  that  individual  prophylactic  materials  are
distributed  properly.
d.  Whether  or  not  he  has  immediate  supervision
over  all  diagnosis  and  treatment  of  VD,  these  aspects
of  control,  particularly  those  related  to  administrative
problems,  should  rightly  concern  him.
e.  Detect  early  infected  personnel  by  supervising
routine  physical  inspections,  as  required  by  section
VII,  AR 40-210,  and  special  inspections  when  
circumstances warrant.  In  neither case  should  advance  
notice of  the  inspection  be  given.
f.  Collaboration  with  civilian  and  governmental
agencies  which  are  interested  in  the  VD  control
problem.
g.  Education  of  noncommissioned  officers.  Because
of  the  importance  of  getting  the  cooperation  of  the
enlisted  men  themselves,  every  effort  should  be  made
to  interest  the  noncommissioned  officers  in  the  VD
control  program.  Special  attention  should  be given  to
educating  the  noncommissioned  officers  in  every  detail
of  the  program  so  that  they  will be  able  to pass  on  the
information  to  the  enlisted  men  under  them.
h.  Promotion  of an  adequate  educational  program.

29.  EDUCATIONAL  PROGRAM.  a.  Since  the success
of  the Army VD  control  program  is  dependent  largely
on  each  soldier's  knowledge  of  these  diseases  and  their
prevention,  the  education  of  the  soldier  in  this  subject  
must  be  an  important  part  of  his  training.  The
instruction  is  designed  to  accomplish  two  purposes:
avoidance  of  exposure,  and proper  use  of  prophylactic
measures.  It  should  include  the  following  points:
(1)  Names  and  characteristics  of  the  different  venereal  diseases.
(2)  Manner of  transmission;  dangers  of  promiscuous
sex  relations.
(3)  Chief  symptoms,  especially  those  at  the  start  of
the  disease.
(4)  Methods  of  prevention.
(5)  Fundamentals  of  treatment;  and  the  dangers  of
neglect,  self-treatment, or  improper  treatment;  dangers
of  neglect  or  improper  treatment  which  may  result
in  such  complications  as  heart  disease,  insanity,  arthritis, or  sterility.
b.  Training  aids  like  films,  film  strips,  charts,  and
pamphlets  help  a  great  deal.  Posters,  short  bulletins,
etc.,  can  serve  as  "reminders."
c.  Whether  the  men  respond  depends  to  a  great
degree  upon whether  the  knowledge  about VD  and  its
prevention  has  been  so  firmly  impressed  on  their
minds  that  they  will  use  it  when  the  need  arises.  It
depends  also upon  an  appeal  to every man's  character,
pride,  patriotism,  and  competitive  spirit.

30.  DISCIPLINARY  MEASURES.  The  standard  of
discipline  in a  unit  is  very  important  in  a VD  control
program.  It  reflects  the  ability  and  attitude  of  the
commanding  officer.  A  good commander  probably will
not  have  to  make  much  use  of  punishment,  but  will
depend  more  upon  instruction  and morale.  However,
in certain  cases,  it may  be  necessary  to use  punishment
in  the VD  control program.  If  a  soldier  fails  to  report
for  treatment  promptly,  for  example,  when  he  knows
or suspects  that he has  a  venereal  disease  the 
commanding  officer  can,  at  his  discretion,  have  the  
man  court martialed.  However,  no  disciplinary  action  
is  authorized  for  failure  to  take  a  prophylaxis  or  for  having
contracted  a  venereal  disease.







Excerpt from the week of 3/9/11 comes from FM 21-100, the Soldier's Handbook


CHAPTER  2
MILITARY  DISCIPLINE AND  COURTESY
SECTION  I 
MILITARY DISCIPLINE

• 26.  The average  civilian  or  recruit coming into the Army, 
often misunderstands the meaning of the words military  dis 
cipline.  He thinks of them as being connected with punish 
ments  or reprimands which may result from the violation  of 
some military law  or  regulation.  Actually,  discipline  should 
not be something new to you for you have been disciplined all 
of your life.  You were being disciplined at home and in school 
when you were taught obedience to your parents and teachers, 
and  respect  for  the  rights  of  others.  On  your  baseball  or 
other athletic team you were  disciplining  yourself when  you 
turned down the chance to be a star performer in order that 
the  team  might  win;  you  were  acquiring  discipline  in  the 
shop,  or  other business,  when your loyalty to  your  employer 
and  your  fellow  employees  was  greater  than  your  desire to 
secure  your  own  advancement.  All  of  this  was  merely  the 
spirit of team play;  that is,  you were  putting the interests of 
the "team"  above  your  own in order that the "team." might 
win.

• 27.  The word "company," "troop," or "battery" is merely the 
military name  for  a team,  and military discipline is  nothing 
more than this same spirit of team play.  It is the most im 
portant thing in the Army.  In civil life lack of discipline in 
a young man may result in his getting into trouble which will 
cause his parents and teachers regret or sorrow; it may cause 
a member  of  an  athletic team to be  "sent to  the bench,"  or 
cause an employee to lose his job.  In the Army it is far more 
serious.  Here lack of discipline in a soldier may not only cost 
him his life and the life of his comrades, but cause  a military
undertaking to fall and his team to be defeated.  On the other 
hand a team of a few well-disciplined soldiers is worth many 
times a much larger number of undisciplined individuals who 
are  nothing  more  than  an  armed mob.  History  repeatedly 
shows that without discipline  no body of troops can hold its 
own against a well-directed and well-disciplined  enemy.

• 28.  In  your  work  in  the  Army  you  may  wonder  why  the 
officers  and  noncommissioned  officers  insist on  perfection in 
what appears to be minor details.  Why  do  rifles have  to  be 
carried at just the same angle;  why do  you have to keep ac 
curately  in  line;  why  must  your  bed  be  made  in  a certain 
way;  why  must  your  uniform  and  equipment  be  in  a  pre 
scribed  order  at all  times;  why  must  all  officers  be  saluted 
with snap and precision?  These things are part of your  dis 
ciplinary training.  Their purpose is  to teach you  obedience, 
loyalty,  team  play,  personal  pride,  pride  in  your  organiza 
tion, respect for the rights of others, love of the flag, and the 
will to win.

• 29.  So  you  see  that  being  disciplined  does  not  mean  you 
are being punished.  It means that you are learning to  place 
the task of  your unit—your team—above  your  personal  wel 
fare;  that you are learning to  obey  promptly and  cheerfully 
the  orders  of  your  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers  so 
that even when they are not present  you will  carry out their 
orders to the very best of your ability.  When you have learned 
these things  and prompt and  cheerful  obedience  has  become 
second  nature  to  you,  then  you  have  acquired  military  dis 
cipline—the  kind  of  discipline which will  save lives  and win 
battles.
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