017 cost, take, spend, pay 的用法:(第五冊)

cost, take, spend, pay 的用法:第五冊

標題句:The watch costs only $200.
    It takes me one hour to wash my car.
    They spent one hour washing the car.
    Mr. Lin paid $1,500 for the meal.

結 構:cost, take, spend, pay 的用法


cost, take, spend, pay 這四個動詞經常會讓台灣學生混淆不清,原因無外於它們所對應的中文,往往都會有一個字「花 ‧‧‧」有關,這包括了「花時間」和「花金錢」。這四個動詞用法上的注意事項如下:

1. 它們的「主詞」是什麼?是「人」?還是「物」?

2. 它們是用於「時間」或「金錢」上?

3. 若其後有接第二個動詞,是「不定詞」( to + 原形動詞)?還是「動名詞」( V-ing )?


1. cost 的本意為「價值」,故僅限用於「主詞」為「」時,當然也僅限用於「金錢」上。( 過去式為 cost,過去分詞也是 cost )


物品 + cost(s) + 人 + .   (物)花了(人)($)

It + cost(s) + 人 +  + to + 原形動詞.   買(物)花了(人)($)

2. pay 的本意為「付錢」,故只能用於「金錢」上,當然「主詞」也只能是「」。( 過去式為 paid,過去分詞也是 paid )


 + pay +  + for + 物品.   (人)付 $ 買(物)


3. spend 用於花費「時間、金錢」,主詞只能是「」,其後若有第二個動詞,則只能用「動名詞」形式。( 過去式為 spent,過去分詞也是 spent )


   + spend + 時間/  + V-ing.   (人)花(時間/ $ )做(事)或買(物)

   + spend +  + on + 物品.   (人)花 $ 買(物)


4. take 用於花費「時間」,主詞有三種可能情形,其後若有第二個動詞,則只能用「不定詞」形式。( 過去式為 took,過去分詞是 taken )

  It + takes + 人 + 時間 + to + 原形動詞.   做(事)花了(人)(時間)

  V-ing (動名詞當主詞) + takes +  + 時間.   做(事)花了(人)(時間)

  take + 時間 + to + 原形動詞.   (人)花(時間)做(事)


讓腦筋整理一下:看了上述四個動詞的相關句型後,頭腦不「花」才怪;請根據上述的四個句型,填寫底下的整理表(如 pay「主詞」的例子,在符合處打 ○ ),再核對一下答案,看看弄懂了沒?(打X處代表不用填寫)[ 核對答案 ]

主  詞

想想看二:在「It + takes + 人 + 時間 + to + 原形動詞.」句型中,主詞 It 是扮演什麼角色?真正的主詞又是在哪裡?[核對答案 ]



e.g.1. The book cost $150. (這本書價值 150 元。)
2. The book cost me $150. (這本書花了我 150 元。)
3. It cost me $150 to but the book.
4. I paid $150 for the book. (我花了 150 元買這本書。)
5. Jeff spent NT$830 on the big dictionary.(Jeff 花 830 元買這本大字典。)
6. They spend some time on the new motorcycle every day. (他們每天花一些時間在那部新機車上。)
7. Jeff spent NT$2000 writing his report.(Jeff 花 2000 元寫他的報告。)
8. Mike spends one hour cleaning his house every week.(Mike 每週花一個小時間打掃他的房子。)
9. Mr. Lin took three hours to get home last night.(林先生昨天晚上花三個小時才回到家。)
10. Getting home took Mr. Lin three hours last night.
11. The trip took her a month.(這趟旅行花了她一個月時間。)

想想看三:請依上、下文意,選出最適當答案。[ 核對答案 ]

1. Susan: This handbag looks beautiful. How much is it?
  Jean: I   $2,000 for it.
  (A) cost (B) paid (C) spent (D) took

2.   spent about an hour eating dinner in that pizza store. 
  (A) Washing a car (B) A pound of beef (C) Mr. and Mrs. Wang (D) The nice trip

3. The house   the Nixon family more than 5 million NT dollars five years ago.
  (A) cost (B) paid (C) spent (D) took

4. Please drive the car carefully. I spent $860,000   it. You know it's a big money for a man like me.
 (A) in (B) at (C) for (D) on

5. Shannon: Did you see the watch while we window-shopped last night?
 Emily: Do you mean you're interested in it? It must   a lot. 
  (A) cost (B) pay (C) spend (D) take

6. Mr. Wilson is very satisfied with the sculpture (雕像) which   him about five years to finish.
  (A) cost (B) paid (C) spent (D) took

7. Do you really want to go to the USA for your doctor degree (博士學位)? It'll   you at least three years.
  (A) cost (B) pay (C) spend (D) take

8. Steve's office is clean. He always gets to his office earlier and spends twenty minutes   it.
 (A) clean (B) cleaning (C) to clean (D) cleaned

9. It's not right for you to   the workers just a little money to make them do that hard work.
  (A) cost (B) pay (C) spend (D) take

10. It has taken more than one and half a years   his farm house.
 (A) build (B) building (C) to build (D) built

11. I've spent a whole day   the CD player, but it still can't work. 
 (A) fix (B) fixing (C) to fix (D) fixed

12. Don't forget to prepare for your final test earlier. It   time. 
  (A) costs (B) pays (C) spends (D) takes

13. If I were you, I wouldn't fix the car any more. It   money.
  (A) costs (B) pays (C) spends (D) takes

[ 想想看三 核對答案 ]

想想看四:請將下列各句,翻譯成英文;請儘量試著依上述各種句型表和例句,寫出各種不同的表達方式。核對答案 ]

1. Jeff 每天花十分鐘騎腳踏車到學校。


2. 那些花花了他六百元。


3. Iris 去年夏天花一個月的時間學習使用電腦。


4. 黃先生只付1,500元買他兒子的手機。


5. 這位仁慈的母親,每天都會花二個鐘頭幫她的女兒做功課。