Visual Arts Handbook

Table of Contents

Aims

The aims of the arts subjects are to enable students to:

1. enjoy lifelong engagement with the arts

2. become informed, reflective and critical practitioners in the arts 3. understand the dynamic and changing nature of the arts

4. explore and value the diversity of the arts across time, place and cultures 5. express ideas with confidence and competence

6. develop perceptual and analytical skills.

Visual arts aims

In addition, the aims of the visual arts course at SL and HL are to enable students to:

7. make artwork that is influenced by personal and cultural contexts

8. become informed and critical observers and makers of visual culture and media

9. develop skills, techniques and processes in order to communicate concepts and ideas.


Assessment Objectives

Having followed the visual arts course at SL or HL, students will be expected to:

Assessment objective 1: demonstrate knowledge and understanding of specified content a. Identify various contexts in which the visual arts can be created and presented

b. Describe artwork from differing contexts, and identify the ideas, conventions and techniques employed by the art-makers

c. Recognize the skills, techniques, media, forms and processes associated with the visual arts d. Present work, using appropriate visual arts language, as appropriate to intentions Assessment objective 2: demonstrate application and analysis of knowledge and understanding a. Express concepts, ideas and meaning through visual communication

b. Analyse artworks from a variety of different contexts

c. Apply knowledge and understanding of skills, techniques, media, forms and processes related to art making

Assessment objective 3: demonstrate synthesis and evaluation

a. Critically analyse and discuss artworks created by themselves and others and articulate an informed personal response

b. Formulate personal intentions for the planning, development and making of artworks that consider how meaning can be conveyed to an audience

c. Demonstrate the use of critical reflection to highlight success and failure in order to progress work d. Evaluate how and why art-making evolves and justify the choices made in their own visual practice Assessment objective 4: select, use and apply a variety of appropriate skills and techniques a. Experiment with different media, materials and techniques in art-making

b. Make appropriate choices in the selection of images, media, materials and techniques in art-making

c. Demonstrate technical proficiency in the use and application of skills, techniques, media, images, forms and processes

d. Produce a body of resolved and unresolved artworks as appropriate to intentions


Syllabus Outline

Core areas

The visual arts core syllabus at SL and HL consists of three equal interrelated areas as shown in figure 2.


These core areas, which have been designed to fully interlink with the assessment tasks, must be central to the planning of the taught course that is designed and delivered by the teacher. Students are required to understand the relationship between these areas and how each area informs and impacts their work in visual arts.

Visual arts in context

The visual arts in context part of the syllabus provides a lens through which students are encouraged to explore perspectives, theories and cultures that inform and influence visual arts practice. Students should be able to research, understand and appreciate a variety of contexts and traditions and be able to identify links between them.

Through the visual arts in context area, students will:

• be informed about the wider world of visual arts and they will begin to understand and appreciate the cultural contexts within which they produce their own works

• observe the conventions and techniques of the artworks they investigate, thinking critically and experimenting with techniques, and identifying possible uses within their own art-making practice

• investigate work from a variety of cultural contexts and develop increasingly sophisticated, informed responses to work they have seen and experienced.

Visual arts methods

The visual arts methods part of the syllabus addresses ways of making artwork through the exploration and acquisition of skills, techniques and processes, and through engagement with a variety of media and methods.

Through the visual arts methods area, students will:

• understand and appreciate that a diverse range of media, processes, techniques and skills are required in the making of visual arts, and how and why these have evolved

• engage with the work of others in order to understand the complexities associated with different art making methods and use this inquiry to inspire their own experimentation and art-making practice

• understand how a body of work can communicate meaning and purpose for different audiences. Communicating visual arts

The communicating visual arts part of the syllabus involves students investigating, understanding and applying the processes involved in selecting work for exhibition and public display. It engages students in making decisions about the selection of their own work.

Through the communicating visual arts area, students will:

• understand the many ways in which visual arts can communicate and appreciate that presentation constructs meaning and may influence the way in which individual works are valued and understood

• produce a body of artwork through a process of reflection and evaluation and select artworks for exhibition, articulating the reasoning behind their choices and identifying the ways in which selected works are connected

• explore the role of the curator; acknowledging that the concept of an exhibition is wide ranging and encompasses many variables, but most importantly, the potential impact on audiences and viewers.

Mapping the course

Students are required to investigate the core syllabus areas through exploration of the following practices: • theoretical practice

• art-making practice

• curatorial practice.

The table below shows how these activities link with the core syllabus areas at both SL and HL


To fully prepare students for the demands of the assessment tasks teachers should ensure that their planning addresses each of the syllabus activities outlined above, the content and focus of which is not prescribed. The connections between the syllabus areas and the assessment tasks can be seen in the table in the section “Linking the visual arts core syllabus areas to the assessment tasks”.

The visual arts journal

Throughout the course students at both SL and HL are required to maintain a visual arts journal. This is their own record of the two years of study and should be used to document:

• the development of art-making skills and techniques

• experiments with media and technologies

• the investigation of their own art development in the context of related art genres • personal reflections

• their responses to first-hand observations

• creative ideas for exploration and development

• their evaluations of art practices and art-making experiences

• their responses to diverse stimuli and to artists and their works, especially in relation to their own art • detailed evaluations and critical analysis

• records of valued feedback received

• challenges they have faced and their achievements.

Students should be encouraged to find the most appropriate ways of recording their development and have free choice in deciding what form the visual arts journal should take. The aim of the visual arts journal is to support and nurture the acquisition of skills and ideas, to record developments, and to critique challenges and successes. It is expected that much of the written work submitted for the assessment tasks at the end of the course will have evolved and been drawn from the contents of the visual arts journal.

Although sections of the journal will be selected, adapted and presented for assessment, the journal itself is not directly assessed or moderated. It is, however, regarded as a fundamental activity of the course.

Using the visual arts journal in assessment tasks

Key opportunities for using the visual arts journal within assessed elements of this course are highlighted in each of the assessment tasks later in this guide.


Syllabus Content

Art-making forms

Throughout the course students are expected to experience working with a variety of different art-making and conceptual forms. SL students should, as a minimum, experience working with at least two art-making forms, each selected from separate columns of the table below. HL students should, as a minimum, experience working with at least three art-making forms, selected from a minimum of two columns of the table below. The examples given are for guidance only and are not intended to represent a definitive list.


Interaction and engagement with local artists or collections as well as visits to museums, galleries, exhibitions and other kinds of presentations provide valuable first-hand opportunities for investigation and should be used to inform student work wherever possible. Personal responses to these experiences should be documented in the visual arts journal.

Research

When carrying out research, students should be encouraged to consult a suitable range of primary and secondary sources. As well as the more obvious sources (books, websites, videos, DVDs, articles) research may also include art-making experiences and encounters such as workshops, lectures, correspondence with experts and visits to exhibitions. All sources consulted during the course must be cited following the protocol of the referencing style chosen by the school and be presented both at point of use and, when required, in a list of sources.


Syllabus content

The visual arts course provides a framework that allows teachers to choose content and activities appropriate to the school context with the precise taught activities and subject materials generated by the teacher and students. When constructing a holistic course of study, the teacher must understand and appreciate how the assessment tasks are drawn from the syllabus areas and design a curriculum which ensures that students are fully equipped and informed in accordance with the visual arts aims and assessment objectives. An integrated relationship between the core areas of visual arts in context, visual arts methods and communicating visual arts is essential throughout the course. The connections between the visual arts syllabus areas and the assessment tasks can be seen in the table “Linking the visual arts core syllabus areas to the assessment tasks”.

Cultural context

For this visual arts guide “cultural context” refers to the conditions that influence and are influenced by culture. These include historical, geographical, political, social and technological factors.

Visual arts in context

The visual arts in context area provides a framework for understanding the contexts of visual arts through theoretical practice, art-making practice and curatorial practice. Students are encouraged to consider works of artists from a variety of cultural contexts and consider how these contexts have influenced their creation and informed how meaning and significance is transferred to an audience. Students investigate and identify the techniques and conventions used by artists when making art and consider how the range of forms, media, processes and techniques are used to realize artistic intentions. Students are required to view artworks and respond to them in exhibition and other settings, considering how curatorial interventions can also contribute to the ways works are perceived. Students are required to explore this area through a variety of art-making forms.

The visual arts in context area should provide a range of opportunities for students to explore theoretical practice, art-making practice and curatorial practice.

Theoretical practice

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of examining and comparing the work of artists from different times, places and cultures, using a range of critical methodologies, considering the cultural contexts influencing their own work and the work of others.

Students should develop the ability to research and analyse art-making practices from a variety of cultural contexts and to make informed comparisons between them. Students should be guided through the process of critical analysis, identifying and critiquing the formal qualities of a range of artworks, objects and artifacts from a range of origins. They should interpret the function and purpose of works, evaluate their significance within the cultural contexts in which they were created, and compare and contrast different pieces, demonstrating that they are able to articulate their understanding in both visual and written forms. Within the “cultural context”, students should be encouraged to consider the historical, political, social, aesthetic and intellectual contexts from which art can evolve and to which it can contribute.


Taught activities for this area might include:

• an introduction to the use of the visual arts journal as a record of individual inquiry and investigation, with particular emphasis on how to appropriately cite sources

• demonstrations, discussions, oral and written presentations about how to begin critiquing artworks, with reference to various cultural contexts, differing art forms and artists

• lessons in art history—these might include an overview of developments and movements from earliest times to the present day, the provision of timelines for reference, with accompanying contextual background (such as historical and sociopolitical influences, cultural and technological achievements and events)

• identifying and engaging with available secondary sources (such as books and audio-visual materials) through the use of the art department library, school resource centre or appropriate art-specific internet sites

• identifying and discussing the formal qualities of particular works as a whole class

• providing an introduction to a range of models for analysing, critiquing, interpreting and deconstructing artworks, offering opportunities for students to engage with these and become familiar with them

• identifying and engaging with primary and secondary sources such as galleries, libraries and working artists

• learning models for engaging in arts based research

• learning how to engage in art criticism or responding to art

• learning specialist art vocabulary and terms through the use of a glossary.

Art-making practice

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of making art through a process of investigation, thinking critically and experimenting with techniques, applying identified techniques to their own developing work.

Students should be given the opportunity to experiment with art-making practices they have identified in their research and their analysis of art-making practices from a variety of cultural contexts. They should engage with artists and artworks that particularly inspire them and experiment with the skills, media, materials, techniques and processes involved. These can take the form of simple transcriptions, through which the students seek to find out how particular elements of artworks have been created or how specific effects have been achieved, or more in-depth studies through which students follow a process through to creating a larger body of work inspired by the artist, artwork or artifact. To enable students to develop proficiency in their own preferred areas of expertise as they progress through the course it is expected that they will have been exposed to a breadth of contrasting skills, techniques, media, production processes, materials and practices and incorporate these into their own repertoire of art-making strategies.

Taught activities for this area might include:

• technical instruction and demonstrations in the use of particular media (such as oil painting, ink drawing, clay modeling, digital techniques and so on) with reference to particular artists

• investigating the historical and technological changes and developments of particular media and techniques

• hands-on, guided workshop sessions for students in the use of media and techniques, supported by visiting specialists where appropriate

• guided projects influenced by particular artists, with particular reference to the media and techniques used and the methods involved

• associated relevant class theory lessons (such as colour theory, history of pigments and so on).

Curatorial practice

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of developing an informed response to work, with students beginning to formulate personal intentions for creating and displaying their own artworks.

Students must be encouraged to develop their own informed individual responses to work and exhibitions they have seen and experienced. They should begin to formulate their own intentions for making original artworks and identify inspirations from a variety of different sources. Students should be capable of clearly expressing their own unique voice through their art-making.

Taught activities for this area might include:

• guided visits to local galleries and community arts initiatives, with particular attention to the curatorial aspects and to identifying individual artists’ purposes, influences and inspirations through their artist statements

• sharing feedback after such visits in a variety of forms (teacher-led, pair and group discussions and presentations, written reflections in the visual arts journal and occasionally more formal assignments)

• consideration of how students’ own work will be affected by that of other artists. Discussions might include the use of transcription as a valid learning tool and the role of appropriation in visual arts work

• creating Mind Maps® of individual ideas for artwork as inspired by work seen elsewhere.

Visual arts methods

The visual arts methods area of the course allows students to explore the different processes involved in art-making. It should provide students with the opportunity to develop the necessary skills and techniques required to make art as well as to observe and reflect upon their own developing art practice. Students should be encouraged to identify their preferred modes of working, their preferred use of media, techniques and processes and begin to realize their strengths and intentions. Students are required to explore this area through a variety of different art-making forms.

The visual arts methods area should provide a range of opportunities for students to explore theoretical practice, art-making practice and curatorial practice.

Theoretical practice

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of looking at different techniques for making art, investigating and comparing how and why different techniques have evolved and the processes involved.

Students should look at different practices for making art from a variety of cultural contexts. They should investigate how different techniques and practices have evolved and through this be able to articulate an understanding of the range of possible approaches to creating original artwork.

Taught activities for this area might include:

• investigating how processes in art have changed and how media or techniques have developed or technologically evolved over time

• familiarization with various art genres, styles, regional schools and associations

• presentation of the range of media, techniques and equipment available to students within the art department and elsewhere within the school

• identification of expertise available to students, within the school and locally (such as local practising artists, the areas of special interest of art department staff and other relevant staff expertise in ICT, design technology and so on)

• demonstrations of available practices and techniques as used by a range of artists and provision of practical guides (such as books, audio-visual material and so on) which deal with specific techniques.

Art-making practices

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of experimenting with diverse media, exploring techniques for making art and developing concepts through processes that are informed by skills, techniques and media.

Students should experiment with a variety of different media, techniques and processes that are appropriate to their own contexts, conceptual development and intentions.

Taught activities for this area might include:

• group or whole-class workshops and demonstrations as well as individual studio practice to facilitate individual experiences in media and techniques (including two-dimensional forms, three-dimensional forms and lens-based, electronic and screen-based forms) with particular reference to the historical development of processes and techniques and different cultural and traditional uses of these

• guiding students to consider and record the potential of these experiences in the visual arts journal, reflecting on students’ individual intentions and ideas

• visual recordings of individual student practical processes

• exploring digital means of capturing art-making practice as it occurs and creating a record of experimentation and exploration with acquired skills.

Curatorial practice

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of evaluating how their ongoing work communicates meaning and purpose, considering the nature of “exhibition” and thinking about the process of selection and the potential impact of their work on different audiences.

Students should be encouraged to reflect upon their developing work with particular focus on how the intended meaning and purpose are communicated. Students need to identify opportunities for further development in the work being undertaken. Students should be encouraged to consider the nature of “exhibition” and consider the role and functions of galleries and museums. They should critique their successes and failures in relation to their intentions and consider how their developing work might impact on an audience if presented for public display.

Taught activities for this area might include:

• talks given by visiting artists about how they put together exhibitions of their own work, with particular emphasis on deciding what to include, what to leave out and why

• looking at and critiquing exhibition reviews in journals

• TOK-linked discussions about the ethics of museums and curatorial artifacts

• exemplar sessions led by the teacher or visiting artist which detail art projects from inquiry and ideas, action and development, application of techniques to concepts, through to evaluation and reflection upon work in progress and/or final product—students are taught to critique in terms of meaning, purpose and success in communication of the idea(s) and development of technique

• student presentations in the same vein, with group discussions and feedback • renewed approaches and application to individual studio work following these review sessions

• use of the visual arts journal to identify not only successes, but also reflecting on “finest failures” within the art-making process and considering how these might drive further experimentation and inquiry.

Communicating visual arts

The communicating visual arts area of the course leads on from, and is informed by, the visual arts in context and visual arts methods core syllabus areas. As students begin to resolve a range of developing pieces of art, it encourages them to engage with the breadth of curatorial strategies that underpin exhibitions and the presentation of work for an audience. It involves them thinking about the process of selecting and rejecting works for exhibition, and considering how they can best be displayed. Students can consider chronological or thematic methods of display, making technical or conceptual connections between works and considering how this may influence the way the audience perceive the works of art. They will demonstrate understanding of how form, media and composition affect meaning.

The communicating visual arts area should provide a range of opportunities for students to explore theoretical practice, art-making practice and curatorial practice.

Theoretical practice

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of exploring ways of communicating through visual and written means, making artistic choices about how to most effectively communicate knowledge and understanding.

Students are encouraged to identify how their own work or that of others fulfills stated intentions and what meanings are communicated and how. They will understand that the concept of an exhibition is broad and encompasses many variables. They will investigate where and why finished pieces are selected for public display, explore the role of the curator and curatorial practices, and begin to understand and appreciate the decision-making process involved in communicating with audiences and presenting work. This syllabus area also examines the impact that diverse modes of presentation can have on an audience or viewers.

Taught activities for this area might include:

• guided investigations into the role of the curator and curatorial practices through visits to galleries and artists’ studios, reviewing catalogues for local exhibitions, presentations by visiting artists and exploration of alternative display spaces—this is supported by individual research with entries in the visual arts journal and shared oral feedback

• the study of artist statements and accepted conventions for titling and annotating exhibited works

• practice in applying the knowledge gained to their own work and that of others through the creation of mini-exhibitions of students’ own work supported by appropriate artist statements, with attention to display and labeling

• curating an imaginary exhibition, identifying an appropriate exhibition context, selecting a particular artist’s work or using artwork from a selected movement, culture or tradition and producing appropriate accompanying documentation.

Art-making practice

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of producing a body of artwork through a process of reflection and evaluation, showing a synthesis of skill, media and concept.

Students will develop their own work for presentation, consider what messages they want to communicate about it to an audience and begin selecting a sample for exhibition. Students will produce a body of their own resolved and unresolved artworks that demonstrate both technical proficiency and conceptual strengths.

Taught activities for this area might include:

• reviewing resolved and unresolved works, individual reflection and guided decision-making • regular individual drafting and redrafting of artist statements of intention

• ongoing individual guided studio work, in the light of student’s own developing artist statements

• workshops in presentation techniques which include refining personal statements, matting, mounts, layout and producing exhibition text.

Curatorial practice

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of selecting and presenting resolved works for exhibition, explaining the ways in which the works are connected and discussing how artistic judgments impact the overall presentation.

Students will select a sample of resolved work and reflect on what makes these effective pieces for exhibition, particularly in response to their own clearly stated intentions and the messages they wanted to communicate about their artwork. The taught syllabus should be flexible enough to ensure that students can create and display a range of artworks. An integral part of this experience is the process of self-reflection and an awareness of how viewers can engage with artwork in different kinds of exhibition contexts and venues.

Taught activities for this area might include:

• learning how to engage in art criticism or responding to art via various models • practice in compiling reflective commentaries on individual artworks

• individual presentations supported by group and class discussions which consider work for exhibition—this process involves identifying projects and pieces which communicate and interest the viewer as well as critiquing work from a technical point of view; discussions focus on improving and developing work in progress

• modeling and monitoring student compilation of exhibition text and other accompanying written material; students identify, contextualize and justify their selections for exhibition.


Assessment Outline SL

Assessment Outline HL

External Assessment

The method used to assess students in visual arts is detailed assessment criteria specific to each assessment task. The assessment criteria are published in this guide and are related to the assessment objectives established for the visual arts course and the arts grade descriptors.


External assessment tasks—SL and HL

Part 1: Comparative study

Weighting: 20%

Students are required to analyse and compare artworks, objects or artifacts by different artists. This independent critical and contextual investigation should explore artworks, objects and artifacts from differing cultural contexts.

Throughout the course, students will have investigated a range of artists, styles, images and objects from a range of cultural contexts, through an integrated approach to exploring the three syllabus areas: visual arts in context, visual arts methods and communicating visual arts. Students select artworks, objects and artifacts for comparison from differing cultural contexts that may have been produced across any of the art-making forms, and that hold individual resonance for the student and have relevance to their own art making practice. This is of particular importance to HL students.

Students at both SL and HL must examine and compare at least three pieces, at least two of which should be by different artists. It is valuable for students to have experienced at least one of the works in real time and space, such as a painting at a gallery, a sculpture in a park or an artifact from the local community that is brought into the school, although this is not essential. Good quality reproductions can be referred to when a student’s location limits their access to such works first hand. The works selected for comparison and analysis should come from contrasting cultural contexts.

Students use research and inquiry skills to investigate and interpret the selected pieces, applying aspects of critical theory and methodologies to the works examined and presenting their findings as a personal and critically reflective analysis, using both visual and written forms of notation. Students must support their interpretation with references to sound and reliable sources. Candidates are required to submit the list of sources used and in-text referencing is required throughout the comparative study. A recognized system of academic referencing must be used in line with the school’s academic honesty policy. A candidate’s failure to acknowledge a source will be investigated by the IB as a potential breach of regulations that may result in a penalty imposed by the IB final award committee.


Preparation process

In preparation for this task, within the core syllabus students at SL and HL must have had experience of the following.


Students then undertake the process outlined below for assessment.

Task details

Students at both SL and HL must select at least three artworks, objects or artifacts, at least two of which should be by different artists. For each of the selected pieces, students should:

• carry out research from a range of different sources (that they must be able to reference) • analyse the cultural contexts in which the selected pieces were created

• identify the formal qualities of the selected pieces

• interpret the function and purpose of the selected pieces

• evaluate the material, conceptual and cultural significance of the selected pieces to the cultural contexts within which they were created.

Students at both SL and HL should then:

• compare the selected pieces, identifying links in cultural context, formal qualities, function, purpose, material, conceptual and cultural significance

• present a list of sources used during the study.

Students at HL should also reflect on the investigation outcomes and the extent to which their own art making practices and pieces have subsequently been influenced by artworks, objects or artifacts examined in the comparative study.

Students should use their visual arts journal to specifically document their investigation and responses to the selected pieces. This includes their detailed interpretations, evaluations and comparisons. Students will select, adapt and present what they have recorded in their journal as the basis for the comparative study task.

The role of the teacher

Teachers must ensure that their students are appropriately prepared for the demands of this task through the careful planning and delivery of the core syllabus activities outlined above. This assessment task must not be teacher led and students must be made fully aware of the assessment criteria against which their work will be judged.

Teachers are required to meet with students at each stage of inquiry, action and reflection to discuss the progress made to date, and to verify the authenticity of the coursework being created by each student. The key outcomes of these one-to-one interactions, which might be formal meetings and/or informal discussions in the classroom, must be summarized by the teacher on the DP visual arts Coursework authentication form (6/VACAF), which is submitted to the IB as part of the upload of external assessment material. This form can be found on the visual arts page of the OCC.

The teacher should discuss the choice of selected artworks, objects and artifacts with each student. It is important that the selected pieces are the student’s own choice. Teachers should also ensure that the students are acknowledging all sources used and referencing them appropriately.

Teachers should read and give advice to students on one draft of the comparative study. The teacher should provide oral or written advice on how the comparative study could be improved, but should not edit the draft. The next version handed to the teacher must be the final version for submission.

Structuring the comparative study

Students should articulate their understanding through both visual and written forms, depending on the most appropriate means of presenting and communicating their findings. While the comparative study may include text-based analysis, it may also include diagrammatic and graphic elements such as annotated sketches and diagrams, annotations on copies of artworks as well as other visual organizing techniques (such as flowcharts, relative importance graphs, concept webs and Mind Maps®). An introduction to the study should summarize the scope of the investigation from which the focus artworks, objects and artifacts have been selected. Students should aim for a balance of visual and written content, and use an appropriate means of acknowledging sources. Students must ensure that their work makes effective use of subject specific language where appropriate.

For each of the selected artworks, objects or artifacts, students at both SL and HL are encouraged to focus their analysis and interpretation of works through consideration of the role of the artist, the artwork, the audience and the cultural context. The scope and scale of the comparative study task will depend largely on the materials selected for investigation. Students may wish, however, to adapt the following structure to suit their needs. This structure is for guidance only and is neither prescriptive nor restrictive.


Introduction

Students summarize the scope of the investigation from which the focus artworks, objects and artifacts have been selected, and any thematic or conceptual framework used to draw the investigation together.

The artworks, objects or artifacts and their contexts

Students summarize their research from a range of different sources and present their inquiry into the identification and interpretation of selected artworks, objects and artifacts. They also explain how they have applied a range and combination of critical theories and methodologies to the works. Areas of investigation might include:

• identification of the cultural contexts of the selected pieces

• identification and analysis of the formal qualities of the selected pieces (elements such as shape/ form, space, tone, colour, line, texture and principles such as balance, rhythm, proportion, emphasis, pattern, variety)

• analysis and understanding of the function and purpose of the selected pieces (such as the meanings of motifs, signs and symbols used in the work)

• analysis and evaluation of the material, conceptual and cultural significance of the pieces and the cultural contexts in which they were created.

Making connections

Students present their comparisons of the different pieces, clearly identifying links between them. These comparisons might include:

• comparing and contrasting the cultural contexts of the selected pieces

• comparing and contrasting the formal qualities of the selected pieces

• comparing and contrasting the function and purpose of the selected pieces • comparing and contrasting the material, conceptual and cultural significance of the pieces.

Connecting to own art-making practice (HL only)

Students analyse and evaluate their research outcomes and the extent to which their own art-making practices and pieces have subsequently been influenced by artworks, objects, artifacts and their creators examined in the comparative study. These influences and personal connections, which should be evidenced in both visual and written forms, might include:

• cultural context

• formal qualities

• function and purpose

• materials, conceptual and cultural significance.

When referring to their own artwork and practices, HL students must be sure to identify and acknowledge their own artworks with the same rigorous attention to detail as with images from other sources.

Sources

Students must cite any source at point of use and include a list of sources used during the study.


Every image used within the comparative study must be appropriately referenced to acknowledge the title, artist, medium and date (where this information is known) and the source, following the protocol of the referencing style chosen by the school. When HL students include any images of their own original work, these must also be identified and acknowledged in the same way. Candidates are required to submit the list of sources that they used and in-text referencing is required throughout the comparative study.

Formal requirements of the task—SL

• SL students submit 10–15 screens which examine and compare at least three artworks, objects or artifacts, at least two of which need to be by different artists. The works selected for comparison and analysis should come from differing cultural contexts.

• SL students submit a list of sources used.

Formal requirements of the task—HL

• HL students submit 10–15 screens which examine and compare at least three artworks, objects or artifacts, at least two of which need to be by different artists. The works selected for comparison and analysis should come from differing cultural contexts.

• HL students submit 3–5 additional screens which analyse the extent to which their work and practices have been influenced by the art and artists examined.

• HL students submit a list of sources used.

Submitting assessment work

The size and format of screens submitted for assessment is not prescribed. Submitted materials are assessed on screen and students must ensure that their work is clear and legible when presented in a digital, on screen format. Students should not scan multiple pages of work from their journals and submit them as a single screen, for example, as overcrowded or illegible materials may result in examiners being unable to interpret and understand the intentions of the work.

The procedure for submitting work for assessment can be found in the Handbook of procedures for the Diploma Programme. Where submitted materials exceed the prescribed screen limits examiners are instructed to base their assessment solely on the materials that appear within the limits.


External assessment Criteria - SL & HL

External assessment tasks—SL and HL

Part 2: Process portfolio

Weighting: 40%

Students at SL and HL submit carefully selected materials which demonstrate their experimentation, exploration, manipulation and refinement of a variety of visual arts activities during the two-year course. The work, which may be extracted from their visual arts journal and other sketch books, notebooks, folios and so on, should have led to the creation of both resolved and unresolved works. The selected process portfolio work should show evidence of their technical accomplishment during the visual arts course and an understanding of the use of materials, ideas and practices appropriate to visual communication. They should be carefully selected to match the requirements of the assessment criteria at the highest possible level.

The work selected for submission should show how students have explored and worked with a variety of techniques, effects and processes in order to extend their art-making skills base. This will include focused, experimental, developmental, observational, skill-based, reflective, imaginative and creative experiments which may have led to refined outcomes.

Preparation process

In preparation for this task, within the core syllabus students at SL and HL must have had experience of the following.


Students then undertake the process outlined below for assessment.

Task details

Students at SL and HL should:

• explore and work with a variety of techniques, technologies, effects and processes in order to extend their skills base, making independent decisions about the choices of media, form and purpose that are appropriate to their intentions

• reflect on their own processes as well as learning about the processes of experimenting, exploring, manipulating and refining the use of media in a variety of ways

• develop a body of work that evidences investigation, development of ideas and artworks and demonstrates a synthesis of ideas and media.


Using the visual arts journal in this task

All students should use their visual arts journal to carry out their explorations with techniques, technologies, effects and processes and to record their discoveries. They should chart and reflect on their experiments with media, their decision-making and formation of artistic intentions. Students will select, adapt and present what they have recorded in their journal as the basis for material submitted for the process portfolio task.


The role of the teacher

Teachers must ensure that their students are appropriately prepared for the demands of this task through the careful planning and delivery of the core syllabus activities outlined above. This assessment task must not be teacher led and students must be made fully aware of the assessment criteria against which their work will be judged.

Teachers are required to meet with students at each stage of inquiry, action and reflection to discuss the progress made to date, and to verify the authenticity of the coursework being created by each student.

While the student is working on the process portfolio task the teacher should discuss with each student their experimentation with techniques, effects and processes. It is important that the submitted screens of the process portfolio are the student’s own choice. Teachers must ensure that students are acknowledging all sources used and referencing them appropriately. Teachers should also ensure that students have worked in the correct number of art-making forms, as outlined in the art-making forms table.

Structuring the process portfolio

Students will have pursued their own interests, ideas and strengths, and their submitted work should highlight the key milestones in this journey. The submission may come from scanned pages, photographs or digital files. The process portfolio screens may take a variety of forms, such as sketches, images, digital drawings, photographs or text. While there is no limit to the number of items students may wish to include on each screen, students should be reminded that overcrowded or illegible materials may result in examiners being unable to interpret and understand their intentions.

The selected screens should evidence a sustained inquiry into the techniques the student has used for making art, the way in which they have experimented, explored, manipulated and refined materials, technologies and techniques and how these have been applied to developing work. Students should show where they have made independent decisions about the choices of media, form and purpose that are appropriate to their intentions. The portfolio should communicate their investigation, development of ideas and artworks and evidence a synthesis of ideas and media. This process will have inevitably resulted in both resolved and unresolved artworks and candidates should consider their successes and failures as equally valuable learning experiences.

Examiners are looking to reward evidence of the following:

• sustained experimentation and manipulation of a variety of media and techniques and an ability to select art-making materials and media appropriate to stated intentions

• sustained working that has been informed by critical investigation of artists, artworks and artistic genres and evidence of how these have influenced and impacted own practice

• how initial ideas and intentions have been formed and how connections have been made between skills, chosen media and ideas

• how ideas, skills, processes and techniques are reviewed and refined along with reflection on the acquisition of skills and analysis of development as a visual artist

• how the submitted screens are clearly and coherently presented with competent and consistent use of appropriate subject-specific language.


Students must ensure that their work makes effective use of appropriate subject-specific language. Academic honesty

Every image used within the process portfolio must be appropriately referenced to acknowledge the title, artist, medium and date (where this information is known) and the source, following the protocol of the referencing style chosen by the school. Students must ensure their own original work is identified and acknowledged in the same way to ensure examiners are clear about the origins of the materials. When the student is aware that another person’s work, ideas or images have influenced their conceptual or developmental work, the source must be cited at point of use and must also be included in a list of sources. Students should declare when an image in the final version of the work is also used in part 3: exhibition assessment task.

Art-making forms

For SL students the submitted work must be in at least two art-making forms, each from separate columns of the table below. For HL students the submitted work must have been created in at least three art-making forms, selected from a minimum of two columns of the art-making forms table below. The examples given are for guidance only and are not intended to represent a definitive list.


Submitted work might well include experiments undertaken during (and reflections upon) taster sessions in particular media, demonstrations of techniques, workshops, master classes, guided experimentation and studio practice experienced as part of the core syllabus activities outlined above.


Formal requirements of the task—SL

• SL students submit 9–18 screens which evidence their sustained experimentation, exploration, manipulation and refinement of a variety of art-making activities. For SL students the submitted work must be in at least two art-making forms, each from separate columns of the art-making forms table.

Formal requirements of the task—HL

• HL students submit 13–25 screens which evidence their sustained experimentation, exploration, manipulation and refinement of a variety of art-making activities. For HL students the submitted work must have been created in at least three art-making forms, selected from a minimum of two columns of the art-making forms table.

Submitting assessment work

The submitted screens may include resolved works that are also submitted for part 3: exhibition assessment task, but these must be clearly labelled to identify them as such.

The size and format of screens submitted for assessment is not prescribed. Submitted materials are assessed on screen and students must ensure that their work is clear and legible when presented in a digital, on screen format. Students should not scan multiple pages of work from their journals and submit them as a single screen, for example, as overcrowded or illegible materials may result in examiners being unable to interpret and understand the intentions of the work.

The procedure for submitting work for assessment can be found in the Handbook of procedures for the Diploma Programme. Where submitted materials exceed the prescribed screen limits examiners are instructed to base their assessment solely on the materials that appear within the limits.


External assessment criteria—SL and HL

Purpose of internal assessment

Internal assessment is an integral part of the visual arts course and is compulsory for both SL and HL students.

Guidance and authenticity

The SL and HL tasks submitted for internal assessment must be the student’s own work. However, it is not the intention that students should decide upon a title or topic and be left to work on the internal assessment task without any further support from the teacher. The teacher should play an important role during both the planning stage and the period when the student is working on the internally assessed work. It is the responsibility of the teacher to ensure that students are familiar with:

• the requirements of the type of work to be internally assessed

• the assessment criteria; students must understand that the work submitted for assessment must address these criteria effectively.

Teachers and students must discuss the internally assessed work. Students should be encouraged to initiate discussions with the teacher to obtain advice and information, and students must not be penalized for seeking guidance. As part of the learning process, teachers should read and give advice to students on one draft of the work. The teacher should provide oral or written advice on how the work could be improved, but must not edit the draft. The next version handed to the teacher must be the final version for submission.

It is the responsibility of teachers to ensure that all students understand the basic meaning and significance of concepts that relate to academic honesty, especially authenticity and intellectual property. Teachers must ensure that all student work for assessment is prepared according to the requirements and must explain clearly to students that the internally assessed work must be entirely their own. Where collaboration between students is permitted, it must be clear to all students what the difference is between collaboration and collusion. Teachers should consider that while there is value in working on collaborative projects in the first year of the course, work submitted for assessment needs to demonstrate how well an individual student has achieved against the marking criteria and collaborative projects might risk to make this unclear.

All work submitted to the IB for moderation or assessment must be authenticated by a teacher, and must not include any known instances of suspected or confirmed academic misconduct. Each student must confirm that the work is his or her authentic work and constitutes the final version of that work. Once a student has officially submitted the final version of the work it cannot be retracted. The requirement to confirm the authenticity of work applies to the work of all students, not just the sample work that will be submitted to the IB for the purpose of moderation.

Authenticity may be checked by discussion with the student on the content of the work, and scrutiny of one or more of the following:

• the student’s initial proposal

• compare the style of the work with work known to be that of the student

• compare the final submission with the first draft of the work

• check the references cited by the student and the original sources

• interview the student in the presence of a third party

• analyse the work using a web-based plagiarism detection service such as www.turnitin.com.

It is the responsibility of supervisors to ensure that all candidates understand the basic meaning and significance of concepts that relate to academic honesty, especially authenticity and intellectual property. Supervisors must ensure that all student work for assessment is prepared according to the requirements and must explain clearly to candidates that any work submitted for assessment must be entirely their own work.

The same piece of work cannot be submitted to meet the requirements of an assessed component and the extended essay.

For further guidance on this issue and the procedures for confirming authenticity please refer to the IB publication Academic honesty in the Diploma Programme and the relevant articles in the General regulations: Diploma Programme, as well as the Handbook of procedures for the Diploma Programme.

Time allocation

Internal assessment is an integral part of the visual arts course, contributing 40% to the final assessment in the SL and the HL courses. This weighting should be reflected in the time that is allocated to teaching the knowledge, skills and understanding required to undertake the work, as well as the total time allocated to carry out the work. This should include:

• time for the teacher to explain to students the requirements of the internal assessment • class time for students to work on the internal assessment component and ask questions • time for consultation between the teacher and each student

• time to review and monitor progress, and to check authenticity.

Requirements and recommendations

It is important for the integrity of the moderation process that the internal assessment by the teacher considers and refers to the same evidence as that available to the moderator. Teachers should therefore always refer to the digital, on-screen version of the submitted work when marking the exhibition.

Using assessment criteria for internal assessment

For internal assessment, a number of assessment criteria have been identified. Each assessment criterion has level descriptors describing specific achievement levels, together with an appropriate range of marks. The level descriptors concentrate on positive achievement, although for the lower levels failure to achieve may be included in the description.

Teachers must judge the internally assessed work at SL and at HL against the criteria using the level descriptors.

• The same assessment criteria are provided for SL and HL students, with some additional criteria for HL only.

• The aim is to find, for each criterion, the descriptor that conveys most accurately the level attained by the student, using the best-fit model. A best-fit approach means that compensation should be made when a piece of work matches different aspects of a criterion at different levels. The mark awarded should be one that most fairly reflects the balance of achievement against the criterion. It is not necessary for every single aspect of a level descriptor to be met for that mark to be awarded.

• When assessing a student’s work, teachers should read the level descriptors for each criterion until they reach a descriptor that most appropriately describes the level of the work being assessed. If a piece of work seems to fall between two descriptors, both descriptors should be read again and the one that more appropriately describes the student’s work should be chosen.

• Where there are two or more marks available within a level, teachers should award the upper marks if the student’s work demonstrates the qualities described to a great extent; the work may be close to achieving marks in the level above. Teachers should award the lower marks if the student’s work demonstrates the qualities described to a lesser extent; the work may be close to achieving marks in the level below.

• Only whole numbers should be recorded; partial marks (fractions and decimals) are not acceptable.

• Teachers should not think in terms of a pass or fail boundary, but should concentrate on identifying the appropriate descriptor for each assessment criterion.

• The highest level descriptors do not imply faultless performance and should be achievable by a student. Teachers should not hesitate to use the extremes if they are appropriate descriptions of the work being assessed.

• A student who attains a high achievement level in relation to one criterion will not necessarily attain high achievement levels in relation to the other criteria. Similarly, a student who attains a low achievement level for one criterion will not necessarily attain low achievement levels for the other criteria. Teachers should not assume that the overall assessment of the students will produce any particular distribution of marks.

• It is strongly recommended that the assessment criteria be made available to students.


Internal assessment details—SL and HL

Part 3: Exhibition

Weighting: 40%

Students at SL and HL submit for assessment a selection of resolved artworks for their exhibition. The selected pieces should show evidence of their technical accomplishment during the visual arts course and an understanding of the use of materials, ideas and practices to realize their intentions. Students also evidence the decision-making process which underpins the selection of this connected and cohesive body of work for an audience in the form of a curatorial rationale.

During the course students will have learned the skills and techniques necessary to produce their own independent artwork in a variety of media. In order to prepare for assessment in this component, students will select the required number of pieces to best match the task requirements and demonstrate their highest achievement. Students at SL select 4–7 artworks for submission while students at HL select 8–11 artworks for submission.

The final presentation of the work is assessed in the context of the presentation as a whole (including the accompanying text) by the teacher against the task assessment criteria.


Preparation process

In preparation for this task within the core syllabus students at SL and HL must have had experience of the following.


Students then undertake the process outlined below for assessment.

Task details

For the exhibition task students at SL and HL should select and present their own original resolved artworks which best evidences:

• technical competence

• appropriate use of materials, techniques, processes

• resolution, communicating the stated intentions of the pieces

• cohesiveness

• breadth and depth

• consideration for the overall experience of the viewer (through exhibition, display or presentation).

Students will be assessed on their technical accomplishment, the conceptual strength of their work and the resolution of their stated intentions. To support their selected resolved artworks, students at SL and HL must also submit:

• exhibition text which states the title, medium, size and a brief outline of the original intentions of each selected artwork

• two photographs of their overall exhibition. While the photographs will not be used to assess individual artworks, they may give the moderator insight into how a student has considered the overall experience of the viewer in their exhibition. Only the selected artworks submitted for assessment should appear in the exhibition photographs.

Students at SL must also develop a curatorial rationale which accompanies their original artworks (400 words maximum). This rationale explains the intentions of the student and how they have considered the presentation of work using curatorial methodologies


Students at HL must also develop a curatorial rationale which accompanies their original artworks (700 words maximum). This rationale explains the intentions of the student and how they have considered the presentation of work using curatorial methodologies, as well as considering the potential relationship between the artworks and the viewer.

Using the visual arts journal in this task

All students should use their visual arts journal to record their intentions for their original artworks and to reflect on the process of resolving them. Students will select, adapt and present what they have recorded in their journal as the basis for material submitted for the curatorial rationale. Students could also use their visual arts journal to plan their exhibitions, using floor plans of available spaces to decide which artworks they will display where. They might consider where the audience will enter from and how they might order the works. Students may wish to consider what relationships need to be established between works and their placement within the exhibition, along with consideration of the exhibition environment and factors which may affect the way in which their work is experienced.

Structuring the exhibition

It is expected that work developed for the exhibition will overlap or have grown from initial or in-depth investigations within part 1: comparative study and part 2: process portfolio.

Work developed for the exhibition will have been carefully supported and facilitated by both teacher directed learning activities and independent studies by the student. In preparing for this task students will need to have engaged with a variety of skills, techniques and processes that will have enabled them to manipulate materials, media, techniques and processes in order to discover strengths and work towards technical excellence.

Art-making forms

Having worked within a range of art-making forms for part 2: process portfolio, students at both SL and HL may submit work created in any preferred art-making form for part 3: exhibition. The submitted pieces must be selected by the student from their total body of resolved works and should represent their most successful achievements against the assessment criteria. They should be presented in a manner suitable for an audience.

Exhibition text (500 characters maximum per artwork)

Each submitted artwork should be supported by exhibition text which outlines the title, medium and size of the artwork. The exhibition text should also include a brief outline of the original intentions of the work (500 characters maximum per artwork). The exhibition text must contain reference to any sources which have influenced the individual piece. Students should indicate if objects are self-made, found or purchased within the “medium” section of the exhibition text, where applicable. Where students are deliberately appropriating another artist’s image as a valid part of their art-making intentions, the exhibition text must acknowledge the source of the original image.

Collective pieces

Students are required to submit individual artworks for assessment. Where students wish to submit portions of work in the form of one collective piece (such as diptych, triptych, polyptych or series), this must be clearly stated as part of the title of the submitted piece in the exhibition text, presented in parentheses. For example: Title of the piece (diptych). The requirements for capturing and submitting collective pieces is the same as with other standard submissions, however students deciding to submit collective pieces need to be aware that there is a compromise in the size an image can be viewed when submitted as part of a collective piece which may prevent examiners from taking details that cannot be seen into account. Collective pieces

that are presented without the appropriate exhibition text will be considered as distinct artworks and could lead to a student exceeding the maximum number of pieces.

Academic honesty

Artworks presented for assessment will have been made or constructed by the student. For instance, a piece of fashion design cannot be presented for assessment in realized form if the student did not create it themselves. Where the student has not created the realized piece themselves, they would still be able to submit the design of the piece as an artwork for assessment in the exhibition, but the realized piece cannot be included. Where a student has taken found objects and created art with them this is considered as constructed by the student. Students should identify if objects are self made, found or purchased under the “medium” section when compiling the exhibition text for each of their submitted pieces. When the student is aware that another person’s work, ideas or images have influenced their selected pieces for exhibition the source must be acknowledged within the exhibition text or in the curatorial rationale, following the protocol of the referencing style chosen by the school. In-text referencing is required for sources used to write the curatorial rationale.

The role of the teacher

Teachers must ensure that their students are appropriately prepared for the demands of this task through the careful planning and delivery of the core syllabus activities outlined above. This assessment task must not be teacher led and students must be made fully aware of the assessment criteria against which their work will be judged.

Teachers are required to meet with students at each stage of inquiry, action and reflection to discuss the progress made to date, and to verify the authenticity of the coursework being created by each student. The key outcomes of these one-to-one interactions, which might be formal meetings and/or informal discussions in the classroom, must be summarized by the teacher on the DP visual arts Coursework authentication form (6/VACAF), which is submitted to the IB as part of the upload of external assessment material. This form can be found on the visual arts page of the OCC.

While the student is working on the assessment task the teacher should discuss each student’s choice of selected artworks for submission. It is important that the selected pieces are the student’s own choice. The teacher should encourage the students to review the digital documentation of their artwork and advise them about the best ways to obtain an accurate and true representation of their work.

Teachers should read and give advice to students on one draft of the supporting documents. The teacher should provide oral or written advice on how the supporting documents could be improved, but should not edit them. The next version handed to the teacher must be the final version for submission. Teachers should also ensure that students accurately complete and submit the exhibition text for each of their submitted pieces.

Structuring the curatorial rationale

The curatorial rationale requires SL and HL students to explain why specific artworks have been chosen and presented in a particular format. It provides students with an opportunity to explain any challenges, triumphs, innovations or issues that have impacted upon the selection and presentation of the artworks. Students should use the curatorial rationale to explain the context in which particular artworks were made and presented in order to connect the work with the viewer. In addition to this, students at HL should also explain how the arrangement and presentation of artworks contributes to the audience’s ability to interpret and understand the intentions and meanings within the artworks exhibited.


SL students may find the following questions helpful when approaching this task. This structure is for guidance only and is neither prescriptive nor restrictive.

• What are you hoping to achieve by presenting this body of work? What impact will this body of work have on your audience? What are the concepts and understandings you initially intend to convey?

• How have particular issues, motifs or ideas been explored, or particular materials or techniques used? • What themes can be identified in the work, or what experiences have influenced it?

• How does the way you have exhibited your artwork contribute to the meanings you are trying to convey to an audience?

HL students may find the following questions helpful when approaching this task. This structure is for guidance only and is neither prescriptive nor restrictive.

• What is the vision for presenting this body of work?

• How have particular issues, motifs or ideas been explored, or particular materials or techniques used? • What themes can be identified in the work, or what experiences have influenced it?

• How does the way you have exhibited your artwork contribute to the meanings you are trying to convey to an audience?

• What strategies did you use to develop a relationship between the artwork and the viewer, for example, visual impact?

• How does the way you have arranged and presented your artworks support the relationship and connection between the artworks presented?

• What do you intend your audience to feel, think, experience, understand, see, learn, consider from the work you have selected for exhibition?

Formal requirements of the task—SL

• SL students submit a curatorial rationale that does not exceed 400 words.

• SL students submit 4–7 artworks.

• SL students submit exhibition text (stating the title, medium, and size of the artwork as well as an outline of intentions and/or reference to sources of inspiration) for each selected artwork.

• SL students submit two exhibition photographs: only the selected artworks submitted for assessment should appear in the exhibition photographs.

Formal requirements of the task—HL

• HL students submit a curatorial rationale that does not exceed 700 words.

• HL students submit 8–11 artworks.

• HL students submit exhibition text (stating the title, medium and size of the artwork as well as an outline of intentions and/or reference to sources of inspiration) for each selected artwork.

• HL students submit two exhibition photographs: only the selected artworks submitted for assessment should appear in the exhibition photographs.

The exhibition photographs provide an understanding of the context of the exhibition and the size and scope of the works. While the photographs will not be used to assess individual artworks, they may give the moderator insight into how a student has considered the overall experience of the viewer in their exhibition.


Submitting assessment work

Students may choose to capture and submit individual artworks for assessment in a variety of ways, depending on the nature of the artwork and the resources available. The work should ideally be captured in whatever electronic means is most appropriate for the selected art-making form. A two-dimensional artwork, for example, might be best captured through a still photograph, while a three-dimensional artwork might be best captured through a short video recording. Lens-based, electronic or screen-based artwork such as animation, however, might call for more unusual file types. Please note that time-based submissions such as these are limited to a maximum duration of five minutes. Clarification on the acceptable file types for capturing the assessment materials can be found in the Handbook of procedures for the Diploma Programme.

Additional supporting photographs

Whatever the chosen means of capturing each individual artwork, students are permitted to submit up to two additional photographs in support of each submitted artwork. These additional supporting photographs or screenshots are intended to enable students to provide an enhanced sense of scale or specific detail to the submitted artwork. These additional photographs are optional. This option should be used only when candidates find that one image is insufficient and more photographs are needed to document a single artwork. In the majority of cases this should not be necessary. Photographs of 2D objects should be taken prior to any mounting or framing. Clarification on how to submit the supporting photographs and the accepted file types can be found in the Handbook of procedures for the Diploma Programme.

The procedure for submitting work for assessment can be found in the Handbook of procedures for the Diploma Programme. Where submitted materials exceed the prescribed limits examiners are instructed to base their assessment solely on the materials that appear within the limits.



Internal assessment criteria—SL and HL

Samples of Visual Art Work

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