Chemistry Handbook

Table of Contents

Aims

Through studying biology, chemistry or physics, students should become aware of how scientists work and

communicate with each other. While the scientific method may take on a wide variety of forms, it is the emphasis on a

practical approach through experimental work that characterizes these subjects.


The aims enable students, through the overarching theme of the Nature of science, to:

1. appreciate scientific study and creativity within a global context through stimulating and challenging opportunities

2. acquire a body of knowledge, methods and techniques that characterize science and technology

3. apply and use a body of knowledge, methods and techniques that characterize science and technology

4. develop an ability to analyse, evaluate and synthesize scientific information

5. develop a critical awareness of the need for, and the value of, effective collaboration and

communication during scientific activities

6. develop experimental and investigative scientific skills including the use of current technologies

7. develop and apply 21st century communication skills in the study of science

8. become critically aware, as global citizens, of the ethical implications of using science and technology

9. develop an appreciation of the possibilities and limitations of science and technology

10. develop an understanding of the relationships between scientific disciplines and their influence on other areas of knowledge.

Assessment objectives

The assessment objectives for biology, chemistry and physics reflect those parts of the aims that will be formally

assessed either internally or externally. These assessments will centre upon the nature of science. It is the intention

of these courses that students are able to fufill the following assessment objectives:

1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

a. facts, concepts, and terminology

b. methodologies and techniques

c. communicating scientific information.

2. Apply:

a. facts, concepts, and terminology

b. methodologies and techniques

c. methods of communicating scientific information.

3. Formulate, analyse and evaluate:

a. hypotheses, research questions and predictions

b. methodologies and techniques

c. primary and secondary data

d. scientific explanations.

4. Demonstrate the appropriate research, experimental, and personal skills necessary to carry out

insightful and ethical investigations.

Syllabus outline

Content Overview

(Recommended Teaching Hours)

Core 95 hours


Topic 1: Stoichiometric relationships 13.5

1.1 Introduction to the particulate nature of matter and chemical change

1.2 The mole concept

1.3 Reacting masses and volumes

Topic 2: Atomic structure 6

2.1 The nuclear atom

2.2 Electron configuration

Topic 3: Periodicity 6

3.1 Periodic table

3.2 Periodic trends

Topic 4: Chemical bonding and structure 13.5

4.1 Ionic bonding and structure

4.2 Covalent bonding

4.3 Covalent structures

4.4 Intermolecular forces

4.5 Metallic bonding

Topic 5: Energetics/thermochemistry 9

5.1 Measuring energy changes

5.2 Hess’s Law

5.3 Bond enthalpies

Topic 6: Chemical kinetics 7

6.1 Collision theory and rates of reaction

Topic 7: Equilibrium 4.5

7.1 Equilibrium


Topic 8: Acids and bases 6.5

8.1 Theories of acids and bases

8.2 Properties of acids and bases

8.3 The pH scale

8.4 Strong and weak acids and bases

8.5 Acid deposition

Topic 9: Redox processes 8

9.1 Oxidation and reduction

9.2 Electrochemical cells

Topic 10: Organic chemistry 11

10.1 Fundamentals of organic chemistry

10.2 Functional group chemistry

Topic 11: Measurement and data processing 10

11.1 Uncertainties and errors in measurement and results

11.2 Graphical techniques

11.3 Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds


Additional higher level (AHL) 60 hours

Topic 12: Atomic structure 2

12.1 Electrons in atoms

Topic 13: The periodic table—the transition metals 4

13.1 First-row d-block elements

13.2 Coloured complexes

Topic 14: Chemical bonding and structure 7

14.1 Covalent bonding and electron domain and molecular geometries

14.2 Hybridization

Topic 15: Energetics/thermochemistry 7

15.1 Energy cycles

15.2 Entropy and spontaneity

Topic 16: Chemical kinetics 6

16.1 Rate expression and reaction mechanism

16.2 Activation energy

Topic 17: Equilibrium 4

17.1 The equilibrium law

Topic 18: Acids and bases 10

18.1 Lewis acids and bases

18.2 Calculations involving acids and bases

18.3 pH curves

Topic 19: Redox processes 6

19.1 Electrochemical cells

Topic 20: Organic chemistry 12

20.1 Types of organic reactions

20.2 Synthetic routes

20.3 Stereoisomerism

Topic 21: Measurement and analysis 2

21.1 Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds

Options 15 hours (SL)/25 hours (HL)

A: Materials

Core topics

A.1 Materials science introduction

A.2 Metals and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy

A.3 Catalysts

A.4 Liquid crystals

A.5 Polymers

A.6 Nanotechnology

A.7 Environmental impact—plastics

Additional higher level topics

A.8 Superconducting metals and X-ray crystallography (HL only)

A.9 Condensation polymers (HL only)

A.10 Environmental impact—heavy metals (HL only)

B: Biochemistry

Core topics

B.1 Introduction to biochemistry

B.2 Proteins and enzymes

B.3 Lipids

B.4 Carbohydrates

B.5 Vitamins

B.6 Biochemistry and the environment

Additional higher level topics

B.7 Proteins and enzymes (HL only)

B.8 Nucleic acids (HL only)

B.9 Biological pigments (HL only)

B.10 Stereochemistry in biomolecules (HL only)

C: Energy

Core topics

C.1 Energy sources

C.2 Fossil fuels

C.3 Nuclear fusion and fission

C.4 Solar energy

C.5 Environmental impact—global warming

Additional higher level topics

C.6 Electrochemistry, rechargeable batteries and fuel cells (HL only)

C.7 Nuclear fusion and nuclear fission (HL only)

C.8 Photovoltaic and dye-sensitized solar cells (HL only)

D: Medicinal chemistry

Core topics

D.1 Pharmaceutical products and drug action

D.2 Aspirin and penicillin

D.3 Opiates

D.4 pH regulation of the stomach

D.5 Anti-viral medications

D.6 Environmental impact of some medications

Additional higher level topics

D.7 Taxol—a chiral auxiliary case study (HL only)

D.8 Nuclear medicine (HL only)

D.9 Drug detection and analysis (HL only)



Assessment Outline -SL

Assessment Outline- HL

External assessment details—SL

Paper 1

Duration: 3/4 hour

Weighting: 20%

Marks: 30

• 30 multiple-choice questions on core, about 15 of which are common with HL.

• The questions on paper 1 test assessment objectives 1, 2 and 3.

• The use of calculators is not permitted.

• Students will be provided with a periodic table.

• No marks are deducted for incorrect answers.

Paper 2

Duration: 1¼ hours

Weighting: 40%

Marks: 50

• Short-answer and extended-response questions on core material.

• The questions on paper 2 test assessment objectives 1, 2 and 3.

• The use of calculators is permitted. (See calculator section on the OCC.)

• A chemistry data booklet is to be provided by the school.

Paper 3

Duration: 1 hour

Weighting: 20%

Marks: 35

• This paper will have questions on core and SL option material.

• Section A: one data-based question and several short-answer questions on experimental work.

• Section B: short-answer and extended-response questions from one option.

• The questions on paper 3 test assessment objectives 1, 2 and 3.

• The use of calculators is permitted. (See calculator section on the OCC.)

• A chemistry data booklet is to be provided by the school.


External assessment details—HL

Paper 1

Duration: 1 hour

Weighting: 20%

Marks: 40

• 40 multiple-choice questions on core and AHL, about 15 of which are common with SL.

• The questions on paper 1 test assessment objectives 1, 2 and 3.

• The use of calculators is not permitted.

• Students will be provided with a periodic table.

• No marks are deducted for incorrect answers.

Paper 2

Duration: 2¼ hours

Weighting: 36%

Marks: 95

• Short-answer and extended-response questions on the core and AHL material.

• The questions on paper 2 test assessment objectives 1, 2 and 3.

• The use of calculators is permitted. (See calculator section on the OCC.)

• A chemistry data booklet is to be provided by the school.

Paper 3

Duration: 1¼ hours

Weighting: 24%

Marks: 45

• This paper will have questions on core, AHL and option material.

• Section A: one data-based question and several short-answer questions on experimental work.

• Section B: short-answer and extended-response questions from one option.

• The questions on paper 3 test assessment objectives 1, 2 and 3.

• The use of calculators is permitted. (See calculator section on the OCC.)

• A chemistry data booklet is to be provided by the school.



Appendices

Sample Past papers (SL & HL)

Chemistry-SL-paper-1.pdf
Chemistry-SL-paper-2.pdf
Chemistry-SL-paper-3.pdf
Chemistry-HL-paper-2.pdf

Internal assessment (IA) Sample

Sample IA.pdf

Extended Essay (EE) Sample

Sample EE.pdf