Submm-wave Uni-Travelling Carrier Travelling-Wave photodiodes
Free-electron THz-reabsorption in distributed photodiode structures
V. H. Calle and E. A. Michael
Ultra-fast photodiodes based on vertical p–i–n or uni-traveling (UTC) mesa structures require a highly doped base layer that makes a well-conducting transverse connection between the mesa bottom layer and the bottom metal contacts. To reach the lowest possible THz loss, the question arises on what doping levels would be optimal for this layer. Doping levels of up to cm−3 can be reached in InP, corresponding to conductivities of around S m−1, which is still much lower than those of metal conductors. A full-wave analysis, which is executed in HFSS™ and CST Microwave Studio™ and reported here, shows that a valley of low loss exists around a conductivity of S m−1 (estimated doping value cm−3), in the middle of a conductivity range of excessive terahertz absorption, making this value the best choice for the whole frequency range up to 2000 GHz. The results are supported by an analytical solution in a simplified transmission line model. The results are expected to be significant for designing future distributed photonic devices such as traveling-wave (TW) photodiodes.
Electromagnetic and Device Simulations for Improvements on Vertically Illuminated Travelling-Wave Uni-Travelling-Carrier Photodiodes
Victor Hugo Calle Gil
Generation of pulsed THz
Vertical versus planar pulsed photoconductive antennas that emit in the terahertz regime
The design process of a photoconductive antenna (PCA), which emits efficiently in the electromagnetic terahertz range, demands some considerations that are discussed through this work. In this work, several essential characteristics of a photoconductive antenna made with LT-GaAS are studied by means of well established commercial software (COMSOL 5.3). An approach to the efficiency is also made through the study of geometry, the laser illumination position, the substrate doping distribution, the direction of the bias applied to the semiconductor, the matching impedance at the laser operating frequency and, finally, the plasmonics effects or penetration laser enhancement due to the use of nano antennas. We study and compare two kinds of structures, one which is quasi-bidimensional or planar and the other which is vertical. Additionally, the photoconductive antennas are also modeled by using a simplified equivalent circuit which helps to understand the antennas’ performance. Therefore, some fundamental parameters, like the transient capacitance between the metal contacts are also studied. Furthermore, we introduce an optimized vertical design which achieves the best results.