• The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by fractional distillation.

The fractions can be processed to produce fuels and feedstock for the petrochemical industry.

Many of the fuels on which we depend for our modern lifestyle, such as petrol, diesel oil, kerosene, heavy fuel oil and liquefied petroleum gases, are produced from crude oil.

Many useful materials on which modern life depends are produced by the petrochemical industry, such as solvents, lubricants, polymers, detergents.

The vast array of natural and synthetic carbon compounds occur due to the ability of carbon atoms to form families of similar compounds.

Students should be able to explain how fractional distillation works in terms of evaporation and condensation.

Knowledge of the names of other specific fractions or fuels is not required.

WS 1.2 Use a variety of models such as representational, spatial, descriptive, computational and mathematical to solve problems, make predictions and to develop scientific explanations and understanding of familiar and unfamiliar facts.