188.8.131.52 Energy transfer during exothermic and endothermic reactions
- Energy is conserved in chemical reactions. The amount of energy in the universe at the end of a chemical reaction is the same as before the reaction takes place. If a reaction transfers energy to the surroundings the product molecules must have less energy than the reactants, by the amount transferred.
An exothermic reaction is one that transfers energy to the surroundings so the temperature of the surroundings increases.
Exothermic reactions include combustion, many oxidation reactions and neutralisation.
Everyday uses of exothermic reactions include self-heating cans and hand warmers.
An endothermic reaction is one that takes in energy from the surroundings so the temperature of the surroundings decreases.
Endothermic reactions include thermal decompositions and the reaction of citric acid and sodium hydrogencarbonate. Some sports injury packs are based on endothermic reactions.
Students should be able to:
- distinguish between exothermic and endothermic reactions on the basis of the temperature change of the surroundings
- evaluate uses and applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions given appropriate information.
- Limited to measurement of temperature change. Calculation of energy changes or ΔH is not required.
An opportunity to measure temperature changes when substances react or dissolve in water.
GCSE Chemistry (8462). For exams 2018 onwards. Version 1.0
4.5 Energy changes
Energy changes are an important part of chemical reactions. The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic. These interactions between particles can produce heating or cooling effects that are used in a range of everyday applications. Some interactions between ions in an electrolyte result in the production of electricity. Cells and batteries use these chemical reactions to provide electricity. Electricity can also be used to decompose ionic substances and is a useful means of producing elements that are too expensive to extract any other way.
AT 5 Making and recording of appropriate observations during chemical reactions including changes in temperature and the measurement of rates of reaction by a variety of methods such as production of gas and colour change (links to A-level AT a and l).