1. Fossils are the ‘remains’ of organisms from millions of years ago, which are found in rocks.

Fossils may be formed:

  • from parts of organisms that have not decayed because one or more of the conditions needed for decay are absent
  • when parts of the organism are replaced by minerals as they decay
  • as preserved traces of organisms, such as footprints, burrows and rootlet traces.
  1. Many early forms of life were soft-bodied, which means that they
  2. have left few traces behind. What traces there were have been mainly destroyed by geological activity. This is why scientists cannot be certain about how life began on Earth.
  3. We can learn from fossils how much or how little different organisms have changed as life developed on Earth.
  4. Students should be able to extract and interpret information from charts, graphs and tables such as evolutionary trees

Give examples to show how scientific methods and theories have changed over time. Explain, with an example, why new data from experiments or observations led to changes in models or theories. Decide whether or not given data supports a particular theory. ,

Explain why data is needed to answer scientific questions, and why it may be uncertain, incomplete or not available. Outline a simple ethical argument about the rights and wrongs of a new technology.

Construct and interpret frequency tables and diagrams, bar charts and histograms,

Translate information between graphical and numeric form