Cloning (biology only)


  • Tissue culture: using small groups of cells from part of a plant to grow identical new plants. This is important for preserving rare plant species or commercially in nurseries.

Cuttings: an older, but simple, method used by gardeners to produce many identical new plants from a parent plant.

Embryo transplants: splitting apart cells from a developing animal embryo before they become specialised, then transplanting the identical embryos into host mothers.

Adult cell cloning:

  • The nucleus is removed from an unfertilised egg cell.
  • The nucleus from an adult body cell, such as a skin cell, is inserted into the egg cell.
  • An electric shock stimulates the egg cell to divide to form an embryo.
  • These embryo cells contain the same genetic information as the adult skin cell.
  • When the embryo has developed into a ball of cells, it is inserted into the womb of an adult female to continue its development.

Explain why data is needed to answer scientific questions, and why it may be uncertain, incomplete or not available. Outline a simple ethical argument about the rights and wrongs of a new technology.,

Describe and explain specified examples of the technological applications of science. Describe and evaluate, with the help of data, methods that can be used to tackle problems caused by human impacts on the environment.