During exercise the human body reacts to the increased demand for energy.
The heart rate, breathing rate and breath volume increase during exercise to supply the muscles with more oxygenated blood.
If insufficient oxygen is supplied anaerobic respiration takes place in muscles. The incomplete oxidation of glucose causes a build up of lactic acid and creates an oxygen debt. During long periods of vigorous activity muscles become fatigued and stop contracting efficiently.
(HT only) Blood flowing through the muscles transports the lactic acid to the liver where it is converted back into glucose. Oxygen debt is the amount of extra oxygen the body needs after exercise to react with the accumulated lactic acid and remove it from the cells.
Use of appropriate apparatus to make and record a range of measurements accurately, including length, area, mass, time, temperature, volume of liquids and gases, and pH (links to A-level AT a).,
Use of appropriate apparatus and techniques for the observation and measurement of biological changes and/or processes. ,
Safe and ethical use of living organisms (plants or animals) to measure physiological functions and responses to the environment (links to A-level AT h).