Students should be able to:
- discuss the human and financial cost of these non-communicable diseases to an individual, a local community, a nation or globally
- explain the effect of lifestyle factors including diet, alcohol and smoking on the incidence of non-communicable diseases at local, national and global levels.
- Risk factors are linked to an increased rate of a disease.
- They can be:
- aspects of a person’s lifestyle
- substances in the person’s body or environment.
- A causal mechanism has been proven for some risk factors, but not in others.
- The effects of diet, smoking and exercise on cardiovascular disease.
- Obesity as a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes.
- The effect of alcohol on the liver and brain function.
- The effect of smoking on lung disease and lung cancer.
- The effects of smoking and alcohol on unborn babies.
- Carcinogens, including ionising radiation, as risk factors in cancer.
- Many diseases are caused by the interaction of a number of factors.
- Students should be able to understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data in terms of risk factors.
- Students should be able to translate information between graphical and numerical forms; and extract and interpret information from charts, graphs and tables in terms of risk factors.
- Students should be able to use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables in terms of risk factors.
Describe and explain specified examples of the technological applications of science. Describe and evaluate, with the help of data, methods that can be used to tackle problems caused by human impacts on the environment.,
Give examples to show that there are hazards associated with science-based technologies which have to be considered alongside the benefits. Suggest reasons why the perception of risk is often very different from the measured risk (eg voluntary vs imposed risks, familiar vs unfamiliar risks, visible vs invisible hazards).
Understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data,
Construct and interpret frequency tables and diagrams, bar charts and histograms,
Translate information between graphical and numeric form,
Use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables