B4.1.1.2 Animal and plant cells


Students should be able to explain how the main sub-cellular structures, including the nucleus, cell membranes, mitochondria, chloroplasts in plant cells and plasmids in bacterial cells are related to their functions.

Most animal cells have the following parts:

  • a nucleus
  • cytoplasm
  • a cell membrane
  • mitochondria
  • ribosomes.
  • In addition to the parts found in animal cells, plant cells often have: • chloroplasts

• a permanent vacuole filled with cell sap.

Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall made of cellulose, which strengthens the cell.

Students should be able to use estimations and explain when they should be used to judge the relative size or area of sub-cellular structures

Recognise/draw/interpret diagrams. Translate from data to a representation with a model. Use models in explanations, or match features of a model to the data from experiments or observations that the model describes or explains. Make predictions or calculate quantities based on the model or show its limitations. Give examples of ways in which a model can be tested by observation or experiment.

Make estimates of the results of simple calculations,

Understand and use the symbols: =, <, <<, >>, >, ∝, ~

Use of appropriate apparatus, techniques and magnification, including microscopes, to make observations of biological specimens and produce labelled scientific drawings (links to A-level AT d and e).