Multiple measures of data
Multiple measures of data include demographics, perceptions, student learning, and school processes. Teams need to look at more than one piece of data in order to get a full picture of the strengths and challenges at the school. By using multiple types of data, we can make the best decisions for schools' goals and strategic budgets – and in turn, the best decisions for all students.
Demographic data provides information about the school community. Examples include enrollment and subgroups such as grade level, ethnicity and gender.
Other subgroups that are important when looking at this data are:
- Free or Reduced Lunch (FRL): This refers to students who qualify for Free or Reduced Lunch based on their family’s income level.
- Individualized Education Plan (IEP): This refers to students who qualify for Special Education services.
- Limited English Proficient (LEP): This refers to students who do not speak English as their first language and have limited proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, or understanding English.
Perception data shows the observations, beliefs, and attitudes that stakeholders have about the school. Perception data helps us understand what people think about the learning environment. The learning environment is the classroom, playground, lunchroom, or the school in general. It is important to know student, teacher, and parent perceptions so that schools know what they can do to improve. Perceptions can be gathered in many ways, such as surveys, interviews, and conversations.
Student learning data
Student learning data includes measures of student performance. This data tells how successful students are in school. This data can be collected from a variety of sources including, but not limited to, attendance, classroom quizzes, state and districtwide assessments, grades, and graduation rates.
School processes data
School processes data includes programs, policies, schedules, and classroom practices that are in place at the school. Examples include intervention programs, discipline policies, class schedules, and school procedures. This data, together with student learning data, can give the School Organizational Team information on what is working at the school and what processes may need to be changed.
In practice, not all schools will have the same types of data. For example, high schools might look at Advanced Placement exams and graduation rates, while elementary schools might look at Grade 3 reading results. These are only some examples, and your school will have many different examples of data.
You can use the "Multiple Measures of Data" and "Types of Data" handouts (available in English and Spanish) below to identify sources of data at your school. Please see the training Facilitator Guide for further guidance in using these resources.