## New Kent County Public Schools

## K-12 Mathematics

## Welcome to the K-12 Mathematics Website!

To use this site:

On the Navigation Panel, click on your **Grade Level/Course** to locate the **Pacing Guide**.

**Under** the drop down menu for your **Grade Level** you will find the **Curriculum Frameworks, Resources** and other pertinent information.

If you have resources that you would like to contribute to this webpage, please email them to** mathcoachdana@gmail.com** and in the subject line, put the corresponding 2016 Math SOL. Resources must be created by a New Kent County Schools Employee. I can not accept items that are from Teacher Pay Teachers.

Below you will find the **VDOE Mathematical Process Goals.**

Please Contact **Dana Gumm****, K-12 Math Coordinator, with any questions. **

## Mathematical Process Goals for Students

The content of the mathematics standards is intended to support the following five process goals for students: becoming mathematical problem solvers, communicating mathematically, reasoning mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical representations to model and interpret practical situations. Practical situations include real-world problems and problems that model real-world situations.

### Mathematical Problem Solving

Students will apply mathematical concepts and skills and the relationships among them to solve problem situations of varying complexities. Students also will recognize and create problems from real-world data and situations within and outside mathematics and then apply appropriate strategies to determine acceptable solutions. To accomplish this goal, students will need to develop a repertoire of skills and strategies for solving a variety of problems. A major goal of the mathematics program is to help students apply mathematics concepts and skills to become mathematical problem solvers.

### Mathematical Communication

Students will communicate thinking and reasoning using the language of mathematics, including specialized vocabulary and symbolic notation, to express mathematical ideas with precision. Representing, discussing, justifying, conjecturing, reading, writing, presenting, and listening to mathematics will help students clarify their thinking and deepen their understanding of the mathematics being studied. Mathematical communication becomes visible where learning involves participation in mathematical discussions.

### Mathematical Reasoning

Students will recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics. Students will learn and apply inductive and deductive reasoning skills to make, test, and evaluate mathematical statements and to justify steps in mathematical procedures. Students will use logical reasoning to analyze an argument and to determine whether conclusions are valid. In addition, students will use number sense to apply proportional and spatial reasoning and to reason from a variety of representations.

### Mathematical Connections

Students will build upon prior knowledge to relate concepts and procedures from different topics within mathematics and see mathematics as an integrated field of study. Through the practical application of content and process skills, students will make connections among different areas of mathematics and between mathematics and other disciplines, and to real-world contexts. Science and mathematics teachers and curriculum writers are encouraged to develop mathematics and science curricula that support, apply, and reinforce each other.

### Mathematical Representations

Students will represent and describe mathematical ideas, generalizations, and relationships using a variety of methods. Students will understand that representations of mathematical ideas are an essential part of learning, doing, and communicating mathematics. Students should make connections among different representations – physical, visual, symbolic, verbal, and contextual – and recognize that representation is both a process and a product.

### Instructional Technology

The use of appropriate technology and the interpretation of the results from applying technology tools must be an integral part of teaching, learning, and assessment. However, facility in the use of technology shall not be regarded as a substitute for a student’s understanding of quantitative and algebraic concepts and relationships or for proficiency in basic computations. Students must learn to use a variety of methods and tools to compute, including paper and pencil, mental arithmetic, estimation, and calculators. In addition, graphing utilities, spreadsheets, calculators, dynamic applications, and other technological tools are now standard for mathematical problem solving and application in science, engineering, business and industry, government, and practical affairs.

Calculators and graphing utilities should be used by students for exploring and visualizing number patterns and mathematical relationships, facilitating reasoning and problem solving, and verifying solutions. However, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, “…the use of calculators does not supplant the need for students to develop proficiency with efficient, accurate methods of mental and pencil-and-paper calculation and in making reasonable estimations.” State and local assessments may restrict the use of calculators in measuring specific student objectives that focus on number sense and computation. On the grade three state assessment, all objectives are assessed without the use of a calculator. On the state assessments for grades four through seven, objectives that are assessed without the use of a calculator are indicated with an asterisk (*).

### Computational Fluency

Mathematics instruction must develop students’ conceptual understanding, computational fluency, and problem-solving skills. The development of related conceptual understanding and computational skills should be balanced and intertwined, each supporting the other and reinforcing learning.

Computational fluency refers to having flexible, efficient, and accurate methods for computing. Students exhibit computational fluency when they demonstrate strategic thinking and flexibility in the computational methods they choose, understand, and can explain, and produce accurate answers efficiently.

The computational methods used by a student should be based on the mathematical ideas that the student understands, including the structure of the base-ten number system, number relationships, meaning of operations, and properties. Computational fluency with whole numbers is a goal of mathematics instruction in the elementary grades. Students should be fluent with the basic number combinations for addition and subtraction to 20 by the end of grade two and those for multiplication and division by the end of grade four. Students should be encouraged to use computational methods and tools that are appropriate for the context and purpose.

### Algebra Readiness

The successful mastery of Algebra I is widely considered to be the gatekeeper to success in the study of upper-level mathematics. “Algebra readiness” describes the mastery of, and the ability to apply, the *Mathematics Standards of Learning*, including the Mathematical Process Goals for Students, for kindergarten through grade eight. The study of algebraic thinking begins in kindergarten and is progressively formalized prior to the study of the algebraic content found in the Algebra I Standards of Learning. Included in the progression of algebraic content is patterning, generalization of arithmetic concepts, proportional reasoning, and representing mathematical relationships using tables, symbols, and graphs. The K-8* Mathematics Standards of Learning* form a progression of content knowledge and develop the reasoning necessary to be well-prepared for mathematics courses beyond Algebra I, including Geometry and Statistics.

### Equity

**“***Addressing equity and access includes both ensuring that all students attain mathematics proficiency and increasing the numbers of students from all racial, ethnic, linguistic, gender, and socioeconomic groups who attain the highest levels of mathematics achievement.*”

–** National Council of Teachers of Mathematics**

Mathematics programs should have an expectation of equity by providing all students access to quality mathematics instruction and offerings that are responsive to and respectful of students’ prior experiences, talents, interests, and cultural perspectives. Successful mathematics programs challenge students to maximize their academic potential and provide consistent monitoring, support, and encouragement to ensure success for all. Individual students should be encouraged to choose mathematical programs of study that challenge, enhance, and extend their mathematical knowledge and future opportunities.

Student engagement is an essential component of equity in mathematics teaching and learning. Mathematics instructional strategies that require students to think critically, to reason, to develop problem-solving strategies, to communicate mathematically, and to use multiple representations engages students both mentally and physically. Student engagement increases with mathematical tasks that employ the use of relevant, applied contexts and provide an appropriate level of cognitive challenge. All students, including students with disabilities, gifted learners, and English language learners deserve high-quality mathematics instruction that addresses individual learning needs, maximizing the opportunity to learn.