STEAM 2020

Link: STEAM.

ID: 567 848 9791. Passcode: 826175


Week #32 June 1-4, 2021 Last STEAM Class of the Year - In Person

MONDAY: Petersen 12:30-1:15 / Tally 5th grade 1:15-2:00/ Birkett & Diaz 5th grade 2:00-2:45

TUESDAY: Morning: Tally 4th 9:15-10:00 /Combo Castillo 3rd & Birkett & Diaz 4th grade 10:30-11:15

TUESDAY Afternoon: Ms. Castillo 3rd 12:30-1:15 /All 1st grade 1:15-2:00 /Ms. Henry 2:00-2:45

WEDNESDAY: Rasmussen & Ms. Poretz 9:15-10:00 / Ms. Monroy 10:30-11:15

THURSDAY MORNING: 1st & 2nd grade 10:30-11:15

THURSDAY AFTERNOON: Rasmussen & Poretz 12:30-1:15/ All 2nd Grade 1:15-2:00

Awesome Resource: Mrs. Mallett's STEAMSoCal Facebook for STEAM related articles and activities.

Week #31 May 24-27

Topic: Geology Rocks!

Students are invited to bring their favorite rocks to Sumac for display or to Zoom class.

Books Read Aloud:

Rocks Are Everywhere - Read Aloud

*Charlotte and the Rock - Read Aloud

Scribble Stones by Diane Alber


Videos:

The Amazing Life of Sand Deep Look

Grains of Sand Under a Microscope

Rocks and Minerals for Kids - What are their difference? Science for Kids

...additional videos will be shared at the end of the week. :0)


Books:

Grains of Sand, Nature's Secret Wonder by Dr. Gary Greenburg



That's a wrap for this week!

Next week all on-campus classes will have one live session of STEAM!

Virtual classes will have a Zoom STEAM as usual. :0)

Thank you for your support!

Week #29 May 10-13

Topic: Marine Biology Starring Sharks!

This week we will learn about SHARKS! Did you know there is a Shark Lab at Cal State Long Beach.

If your child is interested in marine biology, this program may be a great fit.

Articles:

California State University Long Beach / Shark Lab

Videos:

Why Undergrad Students Join Shark Lab

Woman Has Removed Over 300 Hooks from Shark's Mouths August 11, 2020 (3:38)

Sharks 101/ National Geographic July 25, 2019 (5:16)

Why Undergrad Students Join Shark Lab (1:16). California State University Long Beach

Dr. Eugenie Clark, Shark Lady August 2015 (2:47)

Books:

Shark Lady by Jess Keating

Week #28 May 3-6

Topic: Feet, Force and Friction

Supplies: In possible please bring a shoe (or two), crayons, 2 pieces of paper, and a ruler to STEAM class this week!

We will brainstorm a list of all the different types of shoes to compare and contrast.

Look carefully at the lines on the bottom of your shoe.

What is the purpose of the lines and patterns on the bottom of your shoes?

Videos

Pete the Cat I Love My White Shoes / Fan's animated book. (4:38)

Pete the Cat I Love My White Shoes / by Simicrane (4:15)


Force, Friction and Feet (Part 1) by funsciencedemos

STEM Challenge: Friction and Shoes 2 by funsciencedemos

How New Balance Sneakers Are Made

How Vans Makes Its Iconic Sneakers

How Dr. Martens' Are Made

How Custom Cowboy Boots Are Made / Master Craft

Coloring Page: Basketball Shoes Coloring Pages

Activity: How To Tie Your Shoes / Easy For Kids (3:09)

Experiments: Easy Science Experiments to Do At Home (6:08)




Week #27 April 26-29

Topic: How One Ship Caused a Global Traffic Jam

SUMMARY: We'll explore how the Evergiven, a container barge, blocked passage through the Suez Canal in Egypt on March 23-28, 2021.

VIDEO CLIPS:

What Really Happened at the Suez Canal grades 4/5 Practical Engineering

How did a ship get stuck in the Suez Canal? The Independent

At Home Options: Build a model representing the Suez Canal and the Ever Given. Teach someone in your family about the events of March 23, 2021


Week #25 April 12-15

Topic: California National & State Parks. Highlight the Redwoods and the Golden Gate Bridge Recreation Area

SUMMARY: California has a variety of National and State Parks including the Redwoods, Yosemite, San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge, Death Valley, Joshua Tree and the Channel Islands. Students enjoyed sharing their favorite destinations!

VIDEO CLIPS:

Redwoods Fun Facts About Redwood Trees / The Good and the Beautiful (June 2020 4:402)

The Golden Gate Bridge by Lincoln Learning Solutions. (3:03) 2/2020

What Do You Know About the Golden Gate Bridge? Smithsonian Channel

BOOK Recommendation:

Iggy Peck Architect (read aloud) by Andrea Beaty Illustrated by David Roberts

ORIGINAL ART VIDEO by Mrs. Mallett. All Art Videos on my YouTube Channel: steamsocal

Learn to draw the Golden Gate Bridge

EXTRA Home Challenges: Build a bridge out of materials at home.

Find the tallest trees in your neighborhood.

Week #24 March 29-April 1

Topic: Biomimicry inspires a flexible, safer robotic arm.

SUMMARY: The robotic arm was invented in the 1970's. Since then, engineers continue to improve the robotic arm. A German robotics company, Festo, used the elephant's trunk as inspiration for a flexible, light weight robotic arm.

VIDEO CLIPS:

Robotic Arm Inspired by the Elephant Trunk (7:56) Excerpt from NOVA's Making Stuff Wilder

Festo Bionic Handling Assistant (1:35) Shows two large "elephant trunk" robotic arms. 2010

Festo Bionic Soft Arm Shows the progress of the robotic arm from 2010-2019.

What's Inside An Elephant's Trunk? (3:00) Science Insider 2019

Giant Elephants Eat Giant Pumpkins at Squishing of the Squash 2019 by the Oregon Zoo.

BOOK Recommendation:

Elmer The Patchwork Elephant by David McKee Read by Bionca Cebotari

But No Elephants by Jerry Smath

Echo of the Elephants by Cynthia Moss and Martyn Colbeck

ORIGINAL ART VIDEO by Mrs. Mallett.

Learn to Draw an Elephant


Week #22 & 23 March 15-18 & 22-25

Topic: Biomimicry inspired by the King Fisher

Summary: Engineers in Japan designed a bullet train that traveled at 170 mph. It was a success except for the fact that when going through a tunnel, the air was pushed forward and caused a sonic boom each time the train exited the tunnel! Engineers were asked to solve the problem of the sonic boom.

Luckily, one of the engineers was a bird watcher! He was inspired by the needle thin beak of the Kingfisher. The Kingfisher dove into the water with barely a sound. Watch the video, "The World Is Poorly Designed, But Nature Helps" to learn more about how the engineers solved the problem!

VIDEO CLIPS:

The World Is Poorly Designed, But Copying Nature Helps by VOX, November 2017

King Fisher: Death From Above (:52-2:17) "Their beaks are shaped like needles and slide into the water with ease!" by Animalogic 2019

Experiment! How Does An Owl Fly So Silently? BBC 2016

BOOK Recommendation for Parents:

Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature by Janine Benyus This book is for adults but is an interesting read.

ORIGINAL ART VIDEO by Mrs. Mallett. Learn to draw a King Fisher diving into the water to catch a fish for dinner.

Go to YouTube. Type in SteamSoCal, search for King Fisher. The entire lesson is on video!

Week #21 March 8-11

Topic: The Octopus in the Aquatic Ecosystem

OCTOPUS VIDEO CLIPS:

Netflix Movie: My Octopus Teacher. A filmmaker forges an unusual friendship with an octopus living in a South African kelp forest, learning as the animal shares the mysteries of her world.

My Octopus Teacher / Official Trailer Netflix

Octopuses 101/ Nat Geo Wild by Nat Geo WILD

A Coconut Octopus Uses Tools to Snatch a Crab by Smithsonian Channel

Run, Octopus, Run! #CephalopodWeek

Octopus Steals Crab from Fisherman / Super Smart Animals / BBC Earth

BOOK Recommendation:

The book, An Octopus is Amazing by Patricia Lauber and Illustrated by Holly Keller, is an excellent introduction to these fascinating creatures. Did you know octopuses have no bones, have a soft, bag-shaped body and can squeeze into a very small space? Also, did you know octopuses turn dark red when they are angry and turn pale when frightened? You'll be fascinated by the videos above. The full feature documentary, My Octopus Teacher is one of my personal favorites.

As you can see, students did a fabulous job creating their own original versions of Octopus Art with the ecosystem and food chain represented by sharks, crabs, fish, kelp and sea urchins.

ORIGINAL ART VIDEO by Mrs. Mallett

Learn to draw an Octopus! Learn to draw an octopus with one of its favorite foods, the crab. Also, if you'd like, add its most dangerous predator, the shark!

SCIENCE DEMO by Mrs. Mallett

Mrs. Mallett's Octopus Science Demonstration. Since the octopus has no bones, it can squeeze into some pretty small spaces. Its only defense is camouflage and escaping into very small spaces.

I found octopuses to be a fascinating topic of study! Enjoy!

Week #20 March 1-4

Cold-Stunned Sea Turtles

We'll visit Texas and the Gulf of Mexico to check in on the Cold-Stunned Sea Turtles.

SEA TURTLE RESCUE Vido Clips

NASA Perpetual Ocean. This video shows ocean currents in motion around the world. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmTY0PKGDs

Frozen sea turtles rescued from arctic blast and released back into the ocean.

tube.com/results?search_query=frozen+sea+turtles+rescued+from+arctic+blast+and+released+back+into+the+ocean

Sea turtles rescued in Texas close to returning to ocean | WNT. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A_gSJ4bhPfE

Thousands of cold-stunned turtles rescued from Texas weather – BBC News. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcDPWPisMfw

Record Breaking Number of Cold Stunned Sea Turtles at Texas State Aquarium. (music, no narration) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gobuazbcLZw.

Review-Watched in 2020: Sea Turtles 101 | National Geographic. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Rmv3nliwCs


Science Experiment will be based on:

NASA Perpetual Ocean. This video shows ocean currents in motion around the world. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmTY0PKGDs


At Home Activities:

Hot vs Cold Water Experiment. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0xB15fNzHc

Hot and Cold Water Density Experiment. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYFIlmOebWs

GIANT SEA TURTLES • AMAZING CORAL REEF FISH • 12 HOURS of THE BEST RELAX MUSIC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=riFyKUyGb4k

Sea Turtle Paper Craft. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BsPm2T8aV_

Week #19 Flamingos from Aruba Feb. 22-25

This week we'll travel to the beautiful little Caribbean Island of Aruba where we will find the only private beach featuring flamingos!

We'll learn fun facts and draw our own flamingo.

Next, we'll travel north to the beautiful island of Cuba. Author Margarita Engle wrote a Newberry Honor Winner "Drum Dream Girl". This story is inspired by a Chinese-African-Cuban girl who broke Cuba's traditional taboo against female drummers. Drum Dream Girl tells an inspiring true story for dreamers everywhere.


ART:

Students drew their own versions of the beautiful flamingo!

Videos:

Flamingo Party in the Caribbean filmed on Flamingo Beach, Aruba.

Flamingos! Fun Flamingo Facts for Kids

Fun Fact: Flamingos are most well known for their pink feathers and funny knees. But did you know that backwards bend isn't backwards at all? That's actually their ankles, and their knees are much higher up, hidden beneath feathers. :0)











Week #18 Feb. 16-19

Mars Rover Landing 2/18/2021 12:55pm


The Rover Perseverance landed safely on Mars on Thursday, February 18, at 12:55 PM, during Kinder and TK STEAM class! Yippe!

Mars Rover Landing Overview - NOW SAFE ON MARS by Mark Rober

At Home Activities: Watch the series of one minute Animated Videos BY NASA on YouTube:

Mars In A Minute: How Do You Get To Mars?

Mars In A Minute: How Do You Land On Mars

Mars In A Minute: Is Mars Really Red

How the Seven Minutes of Terror Could Make or Break NASA's Perseverance Rover by NASA

For the deep thinkers:

Is NASA A Waster of Money by Mark Rober


ART:

Students drew their own versions of one of the stages of the landing. Younger grades drew the space capsule as it entered the atmosphere of Mars. The heat shield protected the capsule. The super sonic parachute, the largest parachute in the world, slowed the capsule from 300 mph to 12 miles per hour.

Older grades drew their version of the Sky Crane Maneuver and cables, which set the Perseverance Rover down gently on the surface of Mars, then detached. The retro rockets guided the Sky Crane as far away as possible with the remaining fuel where it crash landed.

Mark Rober put together an excellent overview of the work leading up to the launch and the landing. Remember, it takes 6.5 months for the rocket to reach Mars!

When I take a survey of "Who Would Like to Leave Earth and Live On Mars?", usually 1-3 students immediately raise their hand. We discuss the pros and cons to living on Mars.

What a historic week.

Perseverance and a little Drone have landed safely on Mars.


Week #17 Feb. 9-12.

Celebrate Black History Month: Astronauts

Mae Jeminson, a physician and engineer, was the first African-American woman in space. Her single mission in 1992 she conducted bone cell research while completing 127 orbits of earth.


Melvin Leland was drafted by the Dallas Cowboys, but was injured before he could play in an NFL game. He worked at NASA's Langley's Research before becoming an astronaut.

How Astronaut Leland Melvin Went from the NFL to Space


Hidden Figures / Teaser Trailer



Winter Session Week #15

Jan. 26, 27, 28, 29

Destination: Puerto Rico

Videos with Scientific Facts:

Dance for Puerto Rico Official Video Created after Hurricane Maria 2017.

From the brink: Saving the Puerto Rican Parrot

Saving Puerto Rican Parrots

Why Invasive Lizard Is Bad for Puerto Rico National Geographic. (grades 4/5 only)

The Marine Iguana / A Perfect Planet / BBC Iguanas on the Galapagos Islands. (Compare and contrast to Iguanas in Puerto Rico).


Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Video:

Learn to Draw a Parrot

At Home Extras:

Experiments: Easy Experiments that will Amaze Kids

How to Draw An Iguana 4th & 5th grade by Art for Kids Hub

Winter Session Week #16

Feb. 2 - 6

Inventions: Black History Month

Videos with Scientific Facts:

Caines Arcade

At Home Extras:

Design and building something using items found at home.

Feel free to share a photo or video with Mrs. Mallett. cmallett@lvusd.org

Winter Session Week #14

Jan. 19 - 22

Ocean EcoSystems: The Sea Otter, Sea Urchin & Kelp

Videos with Scientific Facts:

The Urchin and the Otter / Big Pacific: Voracious

Sea Otters: This Kelp Forests Best Friend / National Geographic


Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Video:

Learn to Draw a Sea Otter

Hands-On Projects for Home: Go to a beach and examine sea weed / kelp. Bring home a piece of kelp and draw a detailed picture of it. Look for shells.

Experiments: Easy Experiments that will Amaze Kids


Winter Session Week #13

Jan. 11-14th

Destination: The Arctic and the Antarctic

Videos with Scientific Facts:

The Arctic Vs. the Antarctic - Camille Seaman

The Difference Between The Arctic And The Antarctic

Baby Emperor Penguins Emerge from Their Shells / Nature on PBS. A robot designed as a penguin captures footage of baby penguins emerging from their shells.

Emperor Penguins Speed Launch Out of the Water / National Geographic. (2:50)

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Video:

Draw an Emperor Penguin and a Robot Penguin

Hands-On Projects for Home:

Experiment: Does ice sink or float? Test it out!

Why Does Ice FLOAT in Water? This is one of the easiest explanations I can find. Watch the cool drawings and let the ideas soak into your brain.


Winter Session Week #12 Jan. 4, 5, 6, 7

Dinosaurs Starring SUE the T-REX!

Book: Nonfiction

Book with Scientific Facts: Hunt for the Past, by Sue Hendrickson

Videos with Scientific Facts

MOST realistic T. rex: the New Sue

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Video:

Draw a T-Rex with Mrs. Mallett

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fqz6cD102ls

Hands-On Projects for Home:

Play with toy dinosaurs outside in the sand or dirt. Design a habitat.

Sue the R. rex Virtual Tour at the Chicago Museuam https://www.fieldmuseum.org/our-events/sue-t-rex-virtual-tour-classrooms-1

Movie for older students only: Juarssic Park


Fall Session Week #11 Dec. 14, 15, 16, 17

Cold Temperature Fun!

Videos with Scientific Facts

I Built A Giant Olaf Snowman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K48dpofHli0

This short video is a terrific example of a young artist /engineer solving an engineering problem! He figured out how to build a 22 foot Olaf in his front yard. This clever artist / engineer used a variety of tools! Watch closely and notice all the tools he used. What can you build in your front yard? What does nature offer as supplies in your area?

Fox Dives Headfirst Into Snow / North America https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2SoGHFM18I

The Life of a Baby Polar Bear - Ep. 4 / Wildlife: The Big Freeze https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vgnXRypc4o

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Video:

Draw a Snowman with a Stocking Cap

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8FOPJv84YtQ

Mrs. Mallett's Original Science Videos:

Dry Ice in Hot Water vs. Cold Water? Make a prediction.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iplhyTIRNhk

Hands-On Projects for Home:

Winter Science Activities: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cB__SycwEs

How to make easy paper snowflakes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ua_tS8Zmv8

Movie for Family: Ice Age / Frozen

Fall Session Week #10 Dec. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Animal Bridges

Videos with Scientific Facts

Grades TK-5. Parley Canyon Wildlife Overpass lets animals walk over I-80. Video credit: Division of Wildlife Resources. Watch deer, moose, mountain lions, wolves and other wildlife cross this bridge during the day and night.

Grades TK-5. Liberty Canyon Wildlife Bridge Over 101 Freeway Enters Final Design Stage. In 2023, cougars and mountain lions will have their own wildlife bridge!

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Video:

Arch Bridge with a Sailboat and Train Learn to draw an arch bridge over water. Have fun adding your own details to boats, sea creatures and a train.

Mrs. Mallett's Original Science Videos:

Test the Strong Arches on a Raw Egg! What? This slow motion video is a blast!

Slow Motion Egg Experiment Will the egg crack? ADD LINK

Slow Motion Take 2. ADD LINK

Hands-On Enrichment Activities

  1. Build a bridge or other structure with marsh mellows and toothpicks.

  2. Build an arch bridge large enough to walk under.

Fall Session Week #8 Nov. 30th - Dec. 3rd

California's Channel Island Fox

Videos with Scientific Facts

Grades TK-5. The History of Fox Island / United States of Animals

Grades 3-5 The Hopeful Story of a Doomed Fox. Fox Defenders, a dedicated group of conservationists, biologists and scientists spent decades to solve the mystery of the disappearing foxes and bring their population back.

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Video:

Island Foxes on Santa Cruz Island

Learn to draw small island foxes in their habitat on Santa Cruz Island, one of the Channel Islands. These small island foxes were once near extinction. Biologists spent decades relocating the Golden Eagle and bringing back the Bald Eagle to balance the ecosystem on Santa Cruz Island. #FoxArt #SteamSoCal #FoxHabitat

Hands-On Enrichment Activities

Make a map of California and the Channel Islands using cardboard and salt dough. Use the salt dough for the land.

Hands on Geography: How to Make a Salt Dough Map https://wehavekids.com/education/salt-dough-maps

STEP 1: Make the dough for the salt dough maps. Using their hands, have your kids mix together: 4 cups of flour, 2 cups of salt, 2 cups of water, 2 Tablespoons of cream of tartar.

STEP 2: Print, Cut out the Outline of the Map of California and the Channel Islands.

STEP 3: Press the Dough onto the Map

STEP 4: Draw sea lions, kelp, fish, star fish, sailboats etc. on the cardboard around the islands.

STEP 5: On another paper, draw island foxes, gopher snakes, birds, deer mice, lizards, cut them out and put them on the islands.

STEP 6: Draw a bald eagle flying in the sky with a fish in his mouth.

Parents are invited to e-mail Mrs. Mallett photos of student artwork.

cmallett@lvusd

Thank you!

My RABBIT Challenge! by Mrs. Mallett

Thank you for everyone who shared ideas about how to solve the rabbit invasion in my back yard! Keep the ideas coming!

Background: I planted flowers on my hill for the Monarch Butterflies. These particular flowers are the type that Monarch Butterflies like because they can get nectar from these flowers with their tiny proboscis.

Sadly, the wild rabbits also like to eat these flowers. Eighteen to twenty rabbits sneak into my backyard every night. The rabbits are devouring the flowers. What can I do to keep the rabbits away? I appreciate all your ideas.

Fall Session Week #7 Nov. 16, 17, 18, 19

California's Channel Islands- Sea Lions

Videos with Scientific Facts

Animals of Channel Islands National Parks: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFk73BvAfqY&t=7s

Sea Lion /Animals For Kids / All Things Animal TV https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEsUdC0mM0c

Facts: The California Sea Lion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEsUdC0mM0c

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Video:

How to draw California Sea Lions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mT3IWCSDV-k&t=11s

Learn to draw two sea lions swimming in the Pacific Ocean with kelp and fish at sunset. The Channel Islands are in the background.


Hands-On Enrichment Activities

Make a map of California and the Channel Islands using cardboard and salt dough. Use the salt dough for the land.

Hands on Geography: How to Make a Salt Dough Map https://wehavekids.com/education/salt-dough-maps

STEP 1: Make the dough for the salt dough maps. Using their hands, have your kids mix together: 4 cups of flour, 2 cups of salt, 2 cups of water, 2 Tablespoons of cream of tartar.

STEP 2: Print, Cut out the Outline of the Map of California and the Channel Islands.

STEP 3: Press the Dough onto the Map

STEP 4: Draw sea lions, kelp, fish, star fish, sailboats etc. on the cardboard around the islands.

Parents are invited to e-mail Mrs. Mallett photos of student artwork.

mallett@lvusd

Thank you!

Fall Session Week #6 Nov. 9, 10, 11, 12

Current Events in Space 2020 - Part 2

Must See Videos for Scientific Facts

Spacesuits for The Next Explorers The next phase of exploration on the moon and on Mars has been named ARTEMIS. In Greek mythology, ARTEMIS is Apollo's twin sister. In 2024 NASA plans to land the first woman and another man on the moon. These moon missions are in preparation for the exploration of Mars. NASA is designing and testing a new spacesuit for the ARTEMIS missions that is more flexible and durable. Scuba divers assist astronauts as they practice space maneuvers while wearing the new spacesuit. They practice in a Neutral Buoyancy Lab, which is a huge swimming pool at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas. (12 minutes)

What is Artemis / #AskNASA NASA astronaut Serena M. Chancellor answers the question "What is Artemis?" Serena is also a doctor.

Train Like an Astronaut. Kelly Marie Tran and Naomi Ackie visit astronauts at the Johnson Space Center. Kelly and Naomi both played roles in the recent Star Wars films. (12 minutes))

ISS - International Space Station - Inside ISS - Tour-Q&A-HD NASA Astronaut Sunita Silliams gives us the best inside tour of the International Space Station. How do astronauts live and sleep on the ISS? How do they go to the bathroom? How do they eat food? What kinds of special equipment and technology do they need and use. NASA will build a smaller version of the ISS called GATEWAY. GATEWAY will orbit around the moon.

WATCH: Astronaut Spacewalk Earth Views From NASA FEED #EarthfromSpace

Started Streaming on August 15, 2020 This live feed features Incredibly clear video and majestic views of earth with calming music, no commentary. I feel the vastness of space when watching this feed.

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Videos:

ISS - International Space Station with Astronaut Art Lesson by Mrs. Mallett

Learn to draw the International Space Station or ISS for short. The ISS orbits the earth 16 times each day. It is not in outer space, but instead it is in Low Earth Orbit, which is 220 miles high. Astronauts aboard the ISS see the sunset every 90 minutes.

NASA's ARTEMIS Program Landing the First Woman and Next Man on the Moon 2024. Learn to draw an astronaut on the moon. Add your own details like planets, meteorites and a flag. Art Lesson by Mrs. Mallett

Movies with a SPACE Theme

Hidden Figures. PG, 2016, 127 minutes. Big Question: What kinds of things can hold you back from success?

Apollo 13. PG, 1995, 140 minutes. Big Question: What is the best way to handle problems? Can every problem be predicted and prevented?

October Sky. PG, 1999, 108 minutes. Ideas for Projects and Research: Coal mining, Sputnik, Wernher von Braun, model rockets, welding, science fairs, recycling lathes, rocket fuel, ignition systems, trajectory, goals and inspiration.

Hands-On Enrichment Activities

NASA's Stomp Rockets. Learn to build your own stomp rocket launcher and design rockets. Conduct your own experiments to see which design flys the farthest.

Logo Design. Research NASA's logos and design your own.

Parents are invited to e-mail Mrs. Mallett photos of student artwork.

cmallett@lvusd

Thank you!

Fall Session Week #6 Nov. 9, 10, 11, 12

Monarch Butterflies - Part 2

Must See Videos for Scientific Facts

Last week the focus was on the migration of the monarch butterflies. This week we focused on the life cycle, particularly the two beautiful stages of the chrysalis.

Monarch Caterpillar turns into a chrysalis - real time (10 min.)

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Videos:

Monarch Hanging Like Letter J and 2 Stages of Chrysalis


Hands-On Enrichment Activities

Its a One-Stop Life Science Field Trip with Linda Godin in Thousand Oaks at:

This Is A Monarchy. 1790 Colgate Drive, Thousand, Oaks, CA. 805-807-0635

Linda Godin has dedicated her life to increasing the Monarch Butterfly population in Thousand Oaks, California. She has a large butterfly pavilion in her back yard. Linda offers butterfly habitats, milkweed and caterpillar eggs for sale. She has it all! Visits are by appointment only.


Notice that the leaves are getting sparse in the photo to the left.

I had to purchase more milkweed plants to keep my 26 caterpillars fed. I now see why Eric Carle wrote his famous book, The Hungry, Hungry Caterpillar.

After about two weeks, caterpillars prepare for the chrysalis stage by hanging upside down like the letter J.

The transformation from the letter J to a chrysalis.

Using only markers and paper, our Sumac Artists created beautiful works of art illustrating the life cycle of the butterfly! Oh how I wish we could display these for all to see, however, I'm sure families are enjoying this art on the walls of their own homes!

Parents are invited to e-mail photos of student artwork to Mrs. Mallett

Thank you for all the support from parents and our PFA!

Mrs. Mallett cmallett@lvusd

Fall Session Week #5 Nov. 2, 3, 4, 5

Current Events in Space 2020! Part 1

Must See Videos for Scientific Facts

Spacesuits for The Next Explorers The next phase of exploration on the moon and on Mars has been named ARTEMIS. In Greek mythology, ARTEMIS is Apollo's twin sister. In 2024 NASA plans to land the first woman and another man on the moon. These moon missions are in preparation for the exploration of Mars. NASA is designing and testing a new spacesuit for the ARTEMIS missions that is more flexible and durable. Scuba divers assist astronauts as they practice space maneuvers while wearing the new spacesuit. They practice in a Neutral Buoyancy Lab, which is a huge swimming pool at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas. (12 minutes)

What is Artemis / #AskNASA NASA astronaut Serena M. Chancellor answers the question "What is Artemis?" Serena is also a doctor.

Train Like an Astronaut. Kelly Marie Tran and Naomi Ackie visit astronauts at the Johnson Space Center. Kelly and Naomi both played roles in the recent Star Wars films. (12 minutes))

ISS - International Space Station - Inside ISS - Tour-Q&A-HD NASA Astronaut Sunita Silliams gives us the best inside tour of the International Space Station. How do astronauts live and sleep on the ISS? How do they go to the bathroom? How do they eat food? What kinds of special equipment and technology do they need and use. NASA will build a smaller version of the ISS called GATEWAY. GATEWAY will orbit around the moon.

WATCH: Astronaut Spacewalk Earth Views From NASA FEED #EarthfromSpace

Started Streaming on August 15, 2020 This live feed features Incredibly clear video and majestic views of earth with calming music, no commentary. I feel the vastness of space when watching this feed.

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Videos:

ISS - International Space Station with Astronaut Art Lesson by Mrs. Mallett

Learn to draw the International Space Station or ISS for short. The ISS orbits the earth 16 times each day. It is not in outer space, but instead it is in Low Earth Orbit, which is 220 miles high. Astronauts aboard the ISS see the sunset every 90 minutes.

NASA's ARTEMIS Program Landing the First Woman and Next Man on the Moon 2024. Learn to draw an astronaut on the moon. Add your own details like planets, meteorites and a flag. Art Lesson by Mrs. Mallett

Movies with a SPACE Theme

Hidden Figures. PG, 2016, 127 minutes. Big Question: What kinds of things can hold you back from success?

Apollo 13. PG, 1995, 140 minutes. Big Question: What is the best way to handle problems? Can every problem be predicted and prevented?

October Sky. PG, 1999, 108 minutes. Ideas for Projects and Research: Coal mining, Sputnik, Wernher von Braun, model rockets, welding, science fairs, recycling lathes, rocket fuel, ignition systems, trajectory, goals and inspiration.

Hands-On Enrichment Activities

NASA's Stomp Rockets. Learn to build your own stomp rocket launcher and design rockets. Conduct your own experiments to see which design flys the farthest.

Logo Design. Research NASA's logos and design your own.

Parents are invited to e-mail Mrs. Mallett photos of student artwork. cmallett@lvusd

Thank you!

Fall Session Week #4 Oct. 26,27,28, 29

Destination Mexico!

Must See Videos for Scientific Facts:

PBS: Unraveling the Monarch Butterfly Migration Mystery Grades 2-5

Deep Look Science: Why is the Hungry Caterpillar so Dang Hungry? Pre-K -5

Mrs. Mallett's Original Art Videos:

Monarch Butterfly and the Milkweed

Butterfly Art






Fall Session Week #3 Oct. 19, 20, 21, 22

Destination Costa Rica!

Geology Highlights: Active Volcanoes, Lava, Magma, Pumice, Obsidian, Black Sand Beaches, Natural Hot Tubs

Volcano Art Grades J-2. Materials: Markers & Crayons

Optional Enrichment Ideas:

Volcano paper model. http://geoblox.com/colorvolcano2.pdf

Homemade lava http://krokotak.com/2013/04/homemade-lava/

Engineering Highlights: The tram that runs throught the rainforest in Guapalis was built without cutting down a single tree. Tram runs two levels of the rainforest, the top level, or emergent, and middle level, or canapy

Jokes: One person cannot play tennis, but Tu-can. One person cannot play chess, but Tu-can!

Tucan Art: Grades 3-5.

FYI: Thank you for parent permission to share this cute 4th grade artist's face! Parents, feel free to email artwork to cmallett@lvusd.org . It's fun to feature student artwork!

Fun Fact: The icon you see next to the green leaves is a donut with steel bars over it, which represents: Do-nut Steal! ;0). We love our clever artists!

Life Science Highlights: Snorkeling with Sea Turtles on Tortuga Island, watching the arrival of tens of thousands of sea turtles returning to lay their eggs on the island.

Optional Enrichment Ideas:

Costa Rica Sea Turtles https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2018/11/jaguars-eating-sea-turtles-costa-rica-animals-news/#close

Glueless paper turtle (paper, cut, fold…easy!)http://krokotak.com/2016/08/glue-less-printable-turtle/

Paper plate turtle (color, cut, staple) http://krokotak.com/2017/07/paper-plate-turtle-craft/

Turtle craft for younger with paper strips (printable template) http://krokotak.com/2016/06/turtle-craft/



Fall Session Week #2

October 12, 13, 14, 15

Destination Peru! Highlights: Machu Picchu, Rainbow Mountain and the colorful Peruvian handicrafts!

Art project: A photo-bombing llama wearing a beautiful Peruvian scarf with the tall Andes Mountains in the background.

Art Video from Mrs. Mallett's YouTube Channel

AT HOME ACTIVITY:

Geology Science Project: Layers of the Earth!

Ingredients needed: Salt, baggie & food coloring.

Geology Salt Art

Geology Science Project is in the same video as the llama.

OPTIONAL AT HOME PROJECTS:

After learning about the incredible handicrafts from Peru, students may have the urge to create at home!

How to make Pom Poms.

Paper Plate Weaving

Learn to Mini Loom Kit.

Sand Art in a Bottle.

Fall Session Week #1 October 5 - 8

Earth Science: SPACE with a Starry Starry Night Twist

Original Art Videos If you missed STEAM, catch up here. :0)

J-K. Art Video: Rockets Launching to Outer Space in a Starry, Starry Night Sky

1-2-3 Art Video: Space Shuttle with External Fuel Tank and Two Boosters

4-5 Art Video: The Red Roadster or Space Shuttle in a Starry Starry Night Sky

The International Space Station is circling the earth day and night. The space station is an example of a project where astronauts and scientists from around the world work together. The Space Shuttle was the "work horse" that took the major pieces of the space station up into space where they were fitted together like a puzzle. There are usually 6 astronauts in the space station. They stay for about 6 months.

Appropriate VIDEO LINKS for ALL GRADES.

ISS - International Space Station - Inside ISS - Tour - Q&A - HD. B. est tour by Astronaut Sunita Williams. 1.Video LINK:

NASA Live STEAM - Earth From Space LIVE Feed / International Space Station Tracker & live chat. Peaceful music plays as views of our beautiful blue planet are shown in real time from a tracker on the international space station

Video: How Does the International Space Station Work? Video made with cool animation!

ENGINEERING Challenge for All Grades: NASA Soda Straw Rockets.

FUN! Favorite Hands-On Tactile Art: Shaving Cream Fall Pumpkin

Life Science: Coastal Crabs and Sea Turtles Part 2

Mrs. Mallett's OCEAN CURRENT EXPERIMENT:

Science of Sea Turtles:

Sea Turtles 101 / National Geographic : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbhlJ_M0mYU

Sea Turtle Migration by See Turtles: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZS0kXtmXuj8

Facts About Sea Turtles Natural World Facts: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTjrqhamIfk

10 Crazy Facts About Sea Turtles: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0chq2uvwgvI

So Cool! Ocean Current Video: NASA / Perpetual Ocean. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmTY0PKGDs&t=30s

This visualization shows ocean surface currents around the world during the period from June 2005 through Decemeber 2007. The visualization does not include a narration or annotations; the goal was to use ocean flow data to create a simple, visceral experience. This visualization was produced using NASA/JPL's computational model called Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean.

How Do Ocean Currents Work? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p4pWafuvdrY

Mrs. Mallett's OCEAN CURRENT EXPERIMENT: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgJsldxRGio
Life Science: Coastal Crabs and Sea Turtles

IMAX Amazing Journeys Red Crab Migration:

****Best ever for kids! : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MU2Fch9FxVc ****


Australian Geographic Christmas Island Part 4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Wiv4ioArnM



Let's Celebrate Science: Part 2 4/21-4/24

Color Mixing: Watch absorption and gravity combine their super powers!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ST_BNJxOBhI&t=22s

Air Pressure Part 2: Water Balloons in Jar!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ST_BNJxOBhI&t=22s

Illustrated Jokes

Learn to draw:

Spider Man!

Mrs. Mallett's Video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nwz9GQYE6jE&t=83s

Let's Celebrate Science with some more fun experiments that will catch you by surprise and leave you wanting more!

Remember, STEAM is optional, so there is no pressure to try these experiments. If you miss class, links to experiments will be posted here.

Supplies: water bottle, balloon, vinegar, baking soda.

Vinegar, Baking Soda & Balloons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3UmpQvwfQA&t=36s

Air Pressure / Egg In The Bottle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3UmpQvwfQA&t=36s

What better way to Celebrate Science than with a Dr. Seuss inspired three layer, 3-D cake?

Ok, the cake is drawn, not baked.

We'll use crazy designs, bright colors, patterns and candles to celebrate our love of everything science!


Mon. April 6, 2:00 PM

Facebook and Instagram Live @ SteamSoCal 2:00 PM

Learn to draw a Poisonous Coral Snake

Mrs. Mallett's original Snake Art video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lzuQUyP1C8

  • Comparison of the Poisonous Coral Snake and the Scarlet King Snake

  • Rhyme: "Red on Yellow harm a fellow." "Red on Black, venom lack."


April 7, 8, 9th 2:00 PM

Facebook and Instagram Live @ SteamSoCal 2:00pm

Tuesday: Dog

Wednesday: Cat

Thursday: Bunny

Link for Art Videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d1pjcSyC0Dc

Biomimicry: bi-o-mim-ic-ry

The design and production of materials, structures, and systems modeled after animals and plants. Scientists and engineers get ideas from nature!

It's ok to be a 'copy cat'! We learn from each other.

Monday: SHARKS - bacteria cannot grow on shark skin

Tuesday: GECKOS - sticky climbing feet

Wednesday: SPIDERS - spider webs are as strong as steel

Thursday: ELEPHANTS - trunk as model for robot arm

Friday: SNAKES - snakeskin's non-friction skin


SHARKS

Mrs. Mallett's Favorite SHARK video clips: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FbGujPpTkUU

J-5 PBS Documentary / NOVA - Making Stuff Smarter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugRc5jx80yg (first 10 minutes). Shark skin is made of a material that can fight disease. Scientists swim with the sharks to collect a sample of shark skin!

J-5 Testing if Sharks Can Smell a Drop of Blood. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugRc5jx80yg Mark Robel, a former NASA engineer, designs an experiment to determine if sharks are attracted to urine, blood, fish oil or all / none of the above. This engaging clip is sure to entertain and educate!

J-K Baby Shark Song Original. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FX20kcp7j5c

J-5. Five Salt Science Demonstrations. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skHMzL95yCk

How to draw Gecko!

Biomimicry: Sticky fingers for robots

Mrs. Mallett's original Art Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gd5Ay_7VnX0

Mrs. Mallett's Favorite Gecko video clips:

J-5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2AGMO38j24&t=930s


How to draw Spider Web & Spiderman!

Biomimicry: Spider webs are as strong as steel

Mrs. Mallett's original Art Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJ6s5Af1qhs

Mrs. Mallett's Favorite spider web video clips:

J-5. PBS Documentary NOVA - Making Stuff Stronger (entire clip of 4:33)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJln-sCpU98&t=103s.

J-5 Spider Shoots 25 Metre Web | The Hunt | BBC Earth

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlRkwuAcUd4




How to make a colorful mosaic.

Biomimicry: Elephant trunk is used as a model for a robot arm.

Mrs. Mallett's original art Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FqTf4MpXky8


Mrs. Mallett's Favorite elephant video clips:

J-5 Based on the book Elmer - The Patchwork Elephant by David McKee. Elmer read aloud here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdyo4ykh2WA

J-5 Robotic arm inspired by the Elephant trunk

Spider Shoots 25 Metre Web | The Hunt | BBC Earth

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1MBIaNuLa8&t=8s

How to draw a snake

Biomimicry: The pattern of snake skin is used in race cars and robots to lessen friction.

Mrs. Mallett's Video Link will be added 4/3/2020

6 pm

Mrs. Mallett's Favorite snake video clips:

J-5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajhZiGYq3Pw


STEAM Theme: The TP Tubes

Week #1 March 16-20

1. Optional STEAM Challenge for ENGINEERING: What if we save toilet paper and paper towel tubes and build something with them? Tape, string, paper clips, or anything else at home can be used. Let’s see what kind of 3D structures we can be build! How many inches long is a tube? How many tubes would it take to make a tower as tall as you are? Could you paint or color the tubes? What else can you make? 27 Awesome Ideas! Most use toilet paper tubes.

2. Nature ART: How about trying a new type of art? It’s possible to create your own piece of nature art by collecting and arranging rocks, twigs, sticks, leaves, shells, pinecones, berries, flowers etc. Andy Goldsworthy is an inspiration for this type of art. Bonus: You’ll get fresh air! https://www.google.com/searchq=andy+goldsworthy&safe=strict&sxsrf=ALeKk02RtvLf_5Tu2e4J0rmnxQdrIux1IQ:1584551119525&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiIge70wKToAhXona0KHVjlDoEQ_AUoAXoECCUQAw&biw=1215&bih=92

3. ChessKid Lessons: The Magic Of Chess

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlTEQZ5Sy4E

We’ve been playing chess in STEAM this month. During free choice time at our recent Science Fair I was amazed to watch two kindergartners play chess. They set up the board and moved each piece correctly! Well done.

STEAM Theme: WATER

Week #2 March 23-27

Most classes worked on Water Posters the last week of school. Students created beautiful posters! Students, feel free to make another water poster at home. Rules are here: https://www.lvmwd.com/education/water-awareness-student-art-contest

Science:

Students could gather items for water experiments at home.

Question: How can a boat made of steel float? Don't heavy things sink?

Mrs. Mallett's Demo click here: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=steam+buoyancy+and+boats

Grade J-K https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQuW8G2QV_Q

Grade J-5 How Do Ships Float? The technology that keeps huge cargo ships floating is amazingly simple. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pnIlE1xD-yM

Science Demos using Water. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQx5Be9g16U&t=75s

Walking Water: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OtsonEDtjWU&list=PLumC2cSpMy714dQkloua-d27AW7nAoNhy

This link shows how you can use markers instead of food coloring. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCxbI1qRsWY&t=15s

Preview for week #3: Collect a few pieces of cardboard. The video Caines Arcade is about a young boy who builds an entire arcade out of cardboard. Students may be inspired to build with cardboard after watching it.

Caines Arcade https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTi4p3sBqj8

Activities with Cardboard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTi4p3sBqj8


Mrs. Mallett's Favorite SHARK video clips:

J-5 PBS Documentary / NOVA - Making Stuff Smarter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugRc5jx80yg (first 10 minutes). Shark skin is made of a material that can fight disease. Scientists swim with the sharks to collect a sample of shark skin!

J-5 Testing if Sharks Can Smell a Drop of Blood. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugRc5jx80yg Mark Robel, a former NASA engineer, designs an experiment to determine if sharks are attracted to urine, blood, fish oil or all / none of the above. This engaging clip is sure to entertain and educate!

J-K Baby Shark Song Original. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FX20kcp7j5c

J-5. Five Salt Science Demonstrations. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skHMzL95yCk





STEAM Theme: The TP Tubes

Week #1 March 16-20

1. Optional STEAM Challenge for ENGINEERING: What if we save toilet paper and paper towel tubes and build something with them? Tape, string, paper clips, or anything else at home can be used. Let’s see what kind of 3D structures we can be build! How many inches long is a tube? How many tubes would it take to make a tower as tall as you are? Could you paint or color the tubes? What else can you make? 27 Awesome Ideas! Most use toilet paper tubes.

2. Nature ART: How about trying a new type of art? It’s possible to create your own piece of nature art by collecting and arranging rocks, twigs, sticks, leaves, shells, pinecones, berries, flowers etc. Andy Goldsworthy is an inspiration for this type of art. Bonus: You’ll get fresh air! https://www.google.com/searchq=andy+goldsworthy&safe=strict&sxsrf=ALeKk02RtvLf_5Tu2e4J0rmnxQdrIux1IQ:1584551119525&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiIge70wKToAhXona0KHVjlDoEQ_AUoAXoECCUQAw&biw=1215&bih=92

3. ChessKid Lessons: The Magic Of Chess

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlTEQZ5Sy4E

We’ve been playing chess in STEAM this month. During free choice time at our recent Science Fair I was amazed to watch two kindergartners play chess. They set up the board and moved each piece correctly! Well done.

STEAM Theme: WATER

Week #2 March 23-27

Most classes worked on Water Posters the last week of school. Students created beautiful posters! Students, feel free to make another water poster at home. Rules are here: https://www.lvmwd.com/education/water-awareness-student-art-contest

Science:

Soon I will be set to invite classes to a live water and buoyancy demo. We'll make predictions, record data and come to conclusions together. Students may gather items for water experiments at home.

Question: How can a boat made of steel float? Don't heavy things sink?

Mrs. Mallett's Demo click here: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=steam+buoyancy+and+boats

Grade J-K https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQuW8G2QV_Q

Grade J-5 How Do Ships Float? The technology that keeps huge cargo ships floating is amazingly simple. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pnIlE1xD-yM

Science Demos using Water. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQx5Be9g16U&t=75s

Walking Water: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OtsonEDtjWU&list=PLumC2cSpMy714dQkloua-d27AW7nAoNhy

This link shows how you can use markers instead of food coloring. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCxbI1qRsWY&t=15s

Preview for week #3: Collect a few pieces of cardboard. The video Caines Arcade is about a young boy who builds an entire arcade out of cardboard. Students may be inspired to build with cardboard after watching it.

Caines Arcade https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTi4p3sBqj8

Activities with Cardboard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTi4p3sBq













I feel like I’ve won the lottery because STEAM is such a fun and engaging topic. I love my job and the enthusiastic students who come to my class. The question I get asked the most is, “When do I get to come to your class again?” This will be my 8th year teaching STEAM at Sumac, and my 10th year teaching STEAM. I am a California Credentialed teacher with a Master’s Degree in Curriculum Design. My father and brother are rocket engineers, so I grew up going to rocket launches and discussing the Shuttle missions. STEAM is an exciting hands-on, fast paced environment where children spend time thinking, collaborating, inventing, experimenting, designing and painting. Every class session is different. Some classes include my custom educational art videos. Most classes include recent, fun, entertaining you-tube clips that tie the art, science and engineering together and show that STEAM is going on every day and is relevant and current. There are employment opportunities and the sky is the limit.I feel honored that I get to watch the next generation of passionate artists, scientists and engineers grow before my eyes.









STEAM Schedule for November 9, 10, 11, 12

Topic: Monarch Butterflies Part 2

MONDAY: Ms. Peterson 12:30 - 1:15 & Mr. Tally 1:15-2:00, Ms. Diaz 2:00 - 2:45

TUESDAY: 1st Grade with Argano, Krock, Lifonzo 1:15-2:00 & Ms. Henry 2:00-2:45

WEDNESDAY: Veteran's Day No Classes. Wednesday Make-Up Day TBD

THURSDAY: 1st Grade Argano, Krock, Lifonzo 10:30-11:15, Poretz & Rasmussen 12:30-1:15, 2nd Grade Gant, Martinez, Lifonzo 1:15-2:00

Birkett 2:00-2:45

Awesome Resource: Mrs. Mallett's STEAMSoCal Facebook for STEAM related articles and activities.