Course Offerings

SCIENCE

Booklet Page 41

SCIENCE DEPARTMENT EXPECTATIONS FOR STUDENT LEARNING:

Students should be able to:

  • Use the methods of scientific inquiry to plan, conduct, draw conclusions and evaluate scientific investigations.
  • Build an understanding of fundamental concepts of science by making connections between the various science disciplines.
  • Conduct scientific investigations that lead to understandings of natural scientific processes.
  • Observe, collect, organize and evaluate scientific data.
  • Improve scientific skills of observing, measuring, replicating experiments, manipulating equipment, and collecting and reporting data through engagement in laboratory activities and fieldwork.
  • Study and learn about important historical and contemporary investigations and solutions that have led to new knowledge about the world around them.
  • Convey scientific understandings to others in both a written and verbal form so as to effectively share scientific ideas relating to themselves and the world around them.
  • Learn the fundamental concepts required for competency in various science disciplines.

LHS SCIENCE PROGRAM

  • At least two full-year foundation courses in science are required of all students.
  • Note that the Massachusetts university system requires three full-year science courses for admission.
  • Listed below is the typical science sequence followed at LHS:

When considering registering for semester science course, please see your School Counselor regarding four-year college requirements.

GRADE 9 Biology

Honors Biology (430)

Biology (431)

Biology (432)


GRADE 10 Chemistry

Honors Chemistry (440)

Chemistry (441)

Chemistry (442)

GRADE 11

AP Physics 1&2 (456)

AP Physics I (454)

Anatomy & Physiology (462)

Chemistry II: Organic &

Biochemistry (464)

Physics (452)

GRADE 12

AP Biology (460)

AP Chemistry (463)

AP Physics C (453)

Anatomy and Physiology (462)

Chemistry II: Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (464)

AP Environmental Science (476)

Semester courses in various science disciplines are open to eligible Juniors and Seniors

SCIENCE COURSES

430 HONORS BIOLOGY 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (8 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: Concepts & Connections, Prentice Hall, 2009, 6th edition, ISBN: 0-13-135566-X

This course provides an in-depth study of major aspects of the biological world: chemistry of life, structure and function of cells, genetics, evolution and biodiversity, anatomy and physiology, and ecology. Students will: design, plan, and carry out investigations to answer scientific questions, develop and use biological models, analyze and interpret data, engage in evidence-based argument, and obtain, evaluate and communicate information.

Biology 430 is aimed at the academically talented student who is highly motivated, has excellent study skills and the ability to work well independently and cooperatively. Biology 430 students should be able to read above grade level and write clearly and concisely in a sophisticated style reflecting a mastery of grammar and biology vocabulary.

Dissection is a part of the standard laboratory experience in Biology. Alternatives to dissection are available for any student who objects to dissection and whose parent or guardian sends a written request to the school.

This course is designed to prepare students for success on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System Test.


431 BIOLOGY 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: None

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: Biology, Kenneth Miller and Joseph Levine, Prentice Hall ©2002, ISBN 0-13-050730-X.

This course provides a solid foundation in major aspects of the biological world: chemistry of life, structure and function of cells, genetics, evolution and biodiversity, anatomy and physiology, and ecology. Students will: design, plan, and carry out investigations to answer scientific questions, develop and use models, analyze and interpret data, engage in evidence-based arguments, and obtain, evaluate and communicate information.

Dissection is a part of the standard laboratory experience in Biology. Alternatives to dissection are available for any student who objects to dissection and whose parent or guardian sends a written request to the school.

This course is designed to prepare students for success on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System Test.


432 BIOLOGY 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: Glencoe Biology, McGraw Hill @2012, ISBN 978-0-07-894586-1

This course provides an introduction to major aspects of the biological world: chemistry of life, structure and function of cells, genetics, evolution and biodiversity, anatomy and physiology, and ecology. Students will: design, plan and carry out investigations to answer scientific questions, develop and use models, analyze and interpret data, engage in evidence-based arguments, and obtain, evaluate and communicate information.

Biology 432 is designed to meet the needs of students who require support in language processing.

Dissection is a part of the standard laboratory experience in Biology. Alternatives to dissection are available for any student who objects to dissection and whose parent or guardian sends a written request to the school.

This course is designed to prepare students for success on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System Test.


440 HONORS CHEMISTRY 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (8 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: A- (90) or better in Algebra I (312) or B- (80) or better in Algebra I Honors (310) or

Department Chair approval

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: Chemistry: Connections to Our Changing World, Pearson, Prentice-Hall ©2002, ISBN 0-013-054383-7

This course is designed to be an intensive college preparatory course with emphasis on lab work and problem solving. This course is aimed at the academically-talented student with a strong work ethic, who is highly motivated, with excellent algebraic and study skills and has the ability to work independently and cooperatively. Topics included in the content of the course are atomic theory (including orbitals), kinetic theory, acid-base theory, chemical bonding, principles of chemical reactions, molecular structure, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, and applications of chemical equilibrium. This course will serve as preparation for advanced courses such as AP Biology, AP Chemistry, and AP Physics courses.


441 CHEMISTRY 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Successful completion of Algebra I.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: Modern Chemistry, Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, ©2002, ISBN 0-03-056537-5 or ©2006 ISBN H73546-7.

This course is designed to be a college preparatory chemistry course including the development of concepts through lab work, problem solving, lectures, and audio-visual materials. Concepts such as atomic theory, kinetic theory, chemical bonding, principles of chemical reactions, molecular structure, heat and energy, nuclear chemistry, solutions, gasses, equilibrium and applications of chemistry will be covered.


442 CHEMISTRY 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: Holt Chemistry, Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, ©2004, ISBN 0-03-066462-4.

This is a lab course similar in content to 441, but is designed to meet the needs of students who require support in language and mathematics processing. Concepts such as atomic theory, kinetic theory, chemical bonding, principles of chemical reactions, molecular structure, heat and energy, nuclear chemistry, solutions, gasses, equilibrium and applications of chemistry will be covered.


452 PHYSICS 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Successful completion of Algebra I or Algebra I Honors and concurrent enrollment in Algebra II or a higher level mathematics course.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: Conceptual Physics, Paul Hewitt, Prentice Hall, ©2002, ISBN 0-13-054254-7.

This course is designed for students wishing to take a physics course but who do not have a strong mathematics background. The course emphasizes the concepts of physics and how they relate to the world around us rather than problem solving. This is done through demonstration, laboratory work, conceptually based questions and hands-on projects. The topics covered are: motion, forces, gravitation, states of matter, temperature, thermodynamics, waves, electricity and additional topics such as magnetism, atomic physics, nuclear physics, relativity and astrophysics, as time and interest allows.


453 ADVANCED PLACEMENT® PHYSICS C 6 Credits

Given: Full Year (9 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: B- (80) or better in AP Physics 1 or a B- (80) in AP Physics 1&2 or Department Chair approval. Students must be taking or have taken AB or BC Calculus

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

This course is designed for students wishing to take a calculus-based physics course that is comparable to first year college physics courses given to engineering majors and students majoring in physical sciences. The first half of the year is devoted to mechanics. The use of calculus in problem solving and in derivations increases as the first semester progresses. The primary emphasis of the second semester is on classical electricity and magnetism. Calculus is used freely in formulating principles and in solving problems during this semester. Laboratory work will include detailed data analysis and will often build on experiments covered in the first year physics course. Students are strongly encouraged to take the Advanced Placement Physics-C exams in both Mechanics and Magnetism.

Students are encouraged to visit: http:://collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/sub_physc.html?physicsc for a description of the course and exam.

This is an Advanced Placement® course with the curriculum determined by the College Board®. Success in this course is dependent upon strong critical and abstract thinking skills, the ability to apply content and knowledge to unfamiliar problems, a substantial time commitment, and a strong work ethic.


454 ADVANCED PLACEMENT® PHYSICS I 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (8 periods per cycle)

Open to: Juniors, Seniors

Prerequisite: A grade of A- (90)or better in Algebra II or a B- (80) or better in Honors Algebra II. Also students must have at least a B-(80) in Honors Chemistry or an A-(90) grade in Chemistry (441) or Department Chair approval

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: College Physics, 10th edition, Serway & Faughn ISBN-13: 978-1-285-73702-7

This course is designed to be the equivalent to a first-semester college course in algebra-based physics. The course covers Newtonian mechanics (including rotational dynamics and angular momentum); work, energy and power; mechanical waves and sound. It will also introduce electric circuits. Additional topics may be covered as time permits. The course is designed primarily for students with a strong background in math and science who wish to pursue careers in science, engineering or medicine. Because the material from a single semester is taught over the entire year, students will have time to engage in inquiry-based learning, learn fundamental physical principles, and develop important scientific practices and reasoning skills. The course will prepare students for the Advanced Placement Physics 1 exam which awards credit for 1 semester of a college level course. Students are strongly encouraged to take the AP Physics 1 exam.

Students are encouraged to visit: http://collegeboard.com for a description of the course and exam

This is an Advanced Placement® course with the curriculum determined by the College Board®. Success in this course is dependent upon strong critical and abstract thinking skills, the ability to apply content and knowledge to unfamiliar problems, a substantial time commitment, and a strong work ethic.


456 ADVANCED PLACEMENT® PHYSICS 1 & 2 6 Credits

Given: Full Year (9 periods per cycle)

Open to: Juniors, Seniors

Prerequisite: Students must have taken or be taking Honors PreCalculus and have had a grade of B-(80) or better in Honors Chemistry and Honors Algebra II or Department Chair Approval

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • This course fulfills one of the two required foundation courses in Science.
  • Text: College Physics, 10th edition, Serway & Faughn, ISBN-13: 978-1-285-73702-7

This course is designed to be the equivalent to a full year college course in algebra-based physics. The course covers Newtonian mechanics (including rotational dynamics and angular momentum); work, energy and power; mechanical waves and sound; optics; fluid mechanics; thermodynamics; electricity and magnetism, including electric circuits; atomic and nuclear physics. Additional topics may be covered as time permits after the AP exams in May. The course is designed primarily for students with a strong background in math and science who wish to pursue careers in science, engineering or medicine. Students will engage in inquiry-based learning, learn fundamental physical principles, and develop important scientific practices and reasoning skills. The course will prepare students for the AP Physics 1 exam which awards credit for the 1st semester of a college level course and the AP Physics 2 exam which awards credit for the 2nd semester of a college level course. Students are strongly encouraged to take both the AP Physics 1 exam and the AP Physics 2 exam.

Students are encouraged to visit: collegeboard.com for a description of the course and exam.

This is an Advanced Placement® course with the curriculum determined by the College Board®. Success in this course is dependent upon strong critical and abstract thinking skills, the ability to apply content and knowledge to unfamiliar problems, a substantial time commitment, and a strong work ethic.


460 ADVANCED PLACEMENT® BIOLOGY 6 Credits

Given: Full Year (9 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: B-(80) or better grade in Honors Biology and Honors Chemistry or

A-(90) or better grade in Biology (431) and Chemistry (441) or Department Chair approval

Students should have taken or be taking Physics.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • Text: Biology, 9th edition, Campbell and Reece, Addison-Wesley-Scott Foresman, ©2011, ISBN 0-321-55823-5.

Biology 460 is designed as the equivalent of a two-semester, college introductory biology course usually taken by biology majors during their first year. Topics include evolution, energy in biological systems, information transfer essential to life and interaction of biological systems. Biology 460 aims to help students develop the conceptual framework, factual knowledge and analytical skills necessary to deal critically with the rapidly changing science of biology.

This course is designed for students who have successfully completed LHS foundation courses in high school biology, chemistry and physics.

Dissection is a part of the standard laboratory experience in Biology. Alternatives to dissection are available for any student who objects to dissection and whose parent or guardian sends a written request to the school.

Students are encouraged to visit: http:://collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/sub_bio.html?biology for a description of the course and exam.

This is an Advanced Placement® course with the curriculum determined by the College Board®. Success in this course is dependent upon strong critical and abstract thinking skills, the ability to apply content and knowledge to unfamiliar problems, a substantial time commitment, and a strong work ethic.


462 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Successful completion of foundation courses in Biology and Chemistry.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • Text: Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Shier, 12th edition, ISBN 978-0-02-137498-4

This is a full year course that provides students with a basic introduction into vertebrate anatomy and physiology.

A&P covers the basics of human anatomy and physiology including anatomical terminology, basic biochemistry, cells and tissues, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic/immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Introduces common human disease processes. Students will benefit from having strong language and vocabulary skills.

Dissection is a part of the standard laboratory experience in Biology. Alternatives to dissection are available for any student who objects to dissection and whose parent or guardian sends a written request to the school.


463 ADVANCED PLACEMENT® CHEMISTRY 6 Credits

Given: Full Year (9 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: B- (80) or better grade in Honors Chemistry (440) or A- (90) grade in Chemistry (441) and B- (80) grade in Pre-Calculus Honors (340) or A-(90) grade in Pre-Calculus (342). Student must have taken or be taking AP Physics1 or AP Physics 1&2 or Department Chair approval.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • Text: Chemistry: The Central Science, 12th edition, Brown et. Al, Pearson 2012 ISBN 13: 9780321696724

The fundamental concepts of chemistry are reviewed. The properties of chemical substance and the dynamics of chemical change are studied. The laboratory work stresses quantitative procedures. The course includes lectures, outside reading, problem sessions and laboratory work. Students are strongly encouraged to take the Advanced Placement Exam.

Students are encouraged to visit: http:://collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/sub_chem.html?chem for a description of the course and exam.

This is an Advanced Placement® course with the curriculum determined by the College Board®. Success in this course is dependent upon strong critical and abstract thinking skills, the ability to apply content and knowledge to unfamiliar problems, a substantial time commitment, and a strong work ethic.


464 CHEMISTRY II: ORGANIC AND BIOCHEMISTRY 5.5 Credits

Given: Full Year (7 periods per cycle)

Open to: Juniors, Seniors

Prerequisite: Successful completion of two foundation courses in science, one of which must be Chemistry 440/441.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

Chemistry II is an introductory course in the chemistry of carbon-based compounds and biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids). Topics to be covered include the structure and properties of functional groups, chemical reactions, the structure of biomolecules, pathways of biological processes, how medicinal compounds work and the process by which a molecule goes from “discovery” to the pharmacy. Students pursuing a career in health-related fields will find this course especially useful.


471 ASTRONOMY 2.75 Credits

Given: Semester (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Successful completion of two foundation courses in science

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • Text: Astronomy, Journey to the Cosmic Frontier, Fix, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, ©2004, ISBN 0-07-283302-5

Astronomy deals with the study of the sun, moon and stars, as well as such topics as black holes, extraterrestrial life, space stations, galaxies and the formation of the universe. This course will introduce students to the characteristics and evolution of planets, stars and galaxies along with the tools and observational techniques used by astronomers to study these objects. Direct observation and online resources will supplement the course.


472 METEOROLOGY 2.75 Credits

Given: Semester (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Successful completion of two foundation courses in science.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

This course will introduce students to the science of meteorology using both theory and hands-on activities. Topics such as: Seasonal and Daily temperature change, fog and cloud formation, precipitation, wind, structure of the atmosphere, forecasting and violent weather events such as hurricanes and tornadoes. Laboratory work will focus on students making direct measurements and retrieving online data of current weather conditions for analysis.


473 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS & WELLNESS 2.75 Credits

Given: Semester (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Successful completion of two foundation courses in science.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

In this course, students will learn how to be prepared for coping with emergency situations. Readiness topics may include marine safety, wilderness preparedness, natural disaster survival and pet emergencies. A major focus will be that students will work towards certification in First Aid, CPR, AED, and Epi-pen administration.

Additionally, information for promoting responsible decision-making and making informed choices regarding personal well-being will be included. This course will be taught by a qualified CPR/First aid instructor.

  • A fee will be collected to cover the cost of course materials and certification.


476 ADVANCED PLACEMENT® ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 6 Credits

Given: Full Year (9 periods per cycle)

Offered to: Juniors, Seniors

Prerequisite: B- (80) or better average in Bio (430/431) & Chem (440/441).

Academic Expectations: Green initiatives, solve problems.

  • Text: Environment, The Science Behind The Stories, Ben Cummings, Pearson, ISBN: 0-13-218248-3

The AP Environmental Science course is designed to be the equivalent of a one semester, introductory college course in environmental science. In both breadth and level of detail, the content of the course reflects what is found in many introductory college courses in environmental science. The goal of the AP Environmental Science course is to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine various solutions for resolving or preventing them.

Environmental science is interdisciplinary; it embraces a wide variety of topics from different areas of study. Yet there are several major unifying constructs or themes that cut across the many topics included in the study of environmental science. The following themes provide a foundation for the structure of the AP Environmental Science course: science is a process, energy conversions underlie all ecological processes, the Earth itself is one interconnected system, humans alter natural systems, environmental problems have a cultural and social context, human survival depends on developing practices that will achieve sustainable systems. This course will include readings, lectures, documentaries, field work and laboratories. Students are strongly encouraged to take the AP Environmental Science exam.

Students are encouraged to visit: http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap-environmental-science-course-description.pdf for a description of the course and exam.

This is an Advanced Placement® course with the curriculum determined by the College Board®. Success in this course is dependent upon strong critical and abstract thinking skills, the ability to apply content and knowledge to unfamiliar problems, comfort with solving mathematical word problems, a substantial time commitment, and a strong work ethic.


478 MARINE SCIENCE 2.75 Credits

Given: Semester (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Successful completion of foundation courses in Biology and Chemistry.

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

  • Text: Introduction to Marine Life, Sumich & Morrissey, Jones & Bartlett, 2004, ISBN 0-7637-3313-X

In this course, students will be introduced to the biological, chemical and physical properties of marine ecosystems. Students will also learn about marine life from single-celled organisms to marine mammals. The course will explore current events in marine science, such as oil spills, coral bleaching, and ocean acidification. Activities will include labs, student power point presentations, and dissections of various marine species.

Dissection is a part of the standard laboratory experience in this course. Alternatives to dissection are available for any student who objects to the dissection and whose parent or guardian sends a written request to the school.


479 FORENSIC SCIENCE 2.75 Credits

Given: Semester (7 periods per cycle)

Prerequisite: Successful completion of two foundation courses in science

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

Text: Forensic Science, Deslich & Funhouser, Kendall Hunt, 2006, ISBN 978-0-757-1825-6

Forensic science is the application of science to the law and encompasses various scientific disciplines. This course will introduce various methodologies and applications used in the forensic context. Topics discussed include blood evidence, DNA analysis, ballistics, hair and fiber analysis, fingerprint analysis, drug analysis, and document examination.


480 ROBOTICS & ENGINEERING 2.75 Credits

Given: Semester

Prerequisite: Successful completion of two foundation courses in science

Academic Expectations: Solve problems, read and interpret information.

This course is designed to introduce students to the engineering and design process through the construction of a small, walking robot. Topics include: an overview of robotics, the skills needed to be an engineer, the design process, the basic properties of electricity and electrical components, and how intinol wire can be used in a robot to function as a muscle would in a living creature. Additional topics might include: building electronic or PC-based controllers for the robot, and building a fully student-designed robot using computer-aided design software.