The Protestant reformation was the 16th century upheaval that broke apart Catholic Europe. Reformers argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of the Bible- and pamphlet- reading pastors and princes. It started in 1517 and ended around 1555. One of the key ideas is the call to purify the church and a belief that the bible, not tradition, should be the sole source of spiritual authority. Martin Luther is considered the "father"of the reformation everything started on Halloween when he presented his "95Theses." The theses was criticizing the Catholic Church for their practice of selling indulgences and for their views on purgatory and papal authority. Everything led to religious bloody wars.