- The Gupta empire expanded across northern, and the central parts of southern India c. 320 and 550 CE. .this time period achievements are arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophy. Chandragupta I (320 – 335 CE )he was the first the sovereign ruler in the empire,they later on called this the golden “Golden Age”. the fall of the Mauryan Empire in the second century BC, was the king assassinated which made the Mauryan empire fall.India had stayed divided for that time. indian was a independent empire.