*Mesolithic (8000–4000 BC)*
*Neolithic (4000–2500 BC)*
*Copper and Bronze Ages (2500–500 BC)* first records of the Tuatha De Dannan Exist
Gaelic Ireland was a Gaelic political and social order that existed in Ireland from sometime in prehistoric era until the early 17th century. Before the Norman invasion of 1169, Gaelic Ireland comprised the whole island. Thereafter, it comprised that part of the country not under English or at least foreign dominion at a given time. For most of its history, Ireland was a 'patchwork' hierarchy of territories ruled by a hierarchy of kings or chiefs, who were elected by a system known as tanistry. Warfare between these territories was common. Occasionally, a powerful ruler was acknowledged as High King of Ireland. Society was separated into kin groups and, like the rest of Europe, was structured hierarchically according to class.
In the 9th century, the Vikings began raiding and founding settlements along Ireland's coasts and waterways. These became Ireland's first large towns. Over time, these settlers were assimilated into Gaelic society and became the Norse-Gaels. After the Norman invasion of 1169–71, large swathes of Ireland came under the control of Norman lords. The King of England claimed sovereignty over this territory – the Lordship of Ireland – and over the island as a whole. However, the Gaelic system continued in areas outside Anglo-Norman control. The territory under English control gradually shrank to an area known as the Pale and, outside this, many Hiberno-Norman lords adopted Gaelic culture. There was regular conflict between the Gaels and the Norman settlers.
In 1542, Henry VIII of England declared the Lordship a Kingdom and himself King of Ireland. The English then began to conquer (or re-conquer) the island. By 1607, Ireland was fully under English control, bringing the old Gaelic political and social order to an end.
Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801 to 1922. For almost all of this period, the island was governed by the UK Parliament in London through its Dublin Castle administration in Ireland. Ireland faced considerable economic difficulties in the 19th century, including the Great Famine of the 1840s. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a vigorous campaign for Irish Home Rule. While legislation enabling Irish Home Rule was eventually passed, militant and armed opposition from Irish unionists, particularly in Ulster, opposed it. Proclamation was shelved for the duration following the outbreak of the Great War. By 1918, however, moderate Irish nationalism had been eclipsed by militant republican separatism.
Between 1840 and 1919, the population of Ireland dropped from 8 million to about 5 milllion. [Potatoe Famine]. 1918 Spanish Flu struck killing 50 million people.
++ Potatoe Famine
The Great Famine (Irish: an Gorta Mór, or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852.
In 1919, war broke out between republican separatists and British Government forces. In 1920, the British Government partitioned Ireland into two semi-autonomous regions: Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, intended to be co-ordinated by a Council of Ireland. Upon Royal Assent, the Parliament of Northern Ireland came into being in 1921. However, the institutions of Southern Ireland never became functional. On 11 July 1921, a ceasefire was agreed between the separatists and the British Government. Subsequent negotiations between Sinn Féin, the major Irish party, and the UK government led to the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty which resulted in five-sixths of Ireland seceding from the United Kingdom. Under the terms of The Treaty, the whole island of Ireland was granted Dominion status as the Irish Free State. An opt-out provision for the Northern Ireland region resulted in its decision to remain part of the UK, while the remainder became the Irish Free State.
+Tír na nÓg [The Otherworld]
The Fomorians (Old Irish: Fomoire, Modern Irish: Fomhóraigh) are a supernatural race in Irish mythology. They are often portrayed as hostile and monstrous beings who come from the sea or underground. Later, they were portrayed as giants and sea raiders. They are enemies of Ireland's first settlers and opponents of the Tuatha Dé Danann, the other supernatural race in Irish mythology. However, their relationship with the Tuath Dé is complex and some of their members intermarry and have children. The Fomorians have thus been likened to the jötnar of Norse mythology.
The Fomorians seem to have been gods who represent the harmful or destructive powers of nature; personifications of chaos, darkness, death, blight and drought. The Tuath Dé, in contrast, seem to represent the gods of growth and civilization. It has also been suggested that the Fomorians derive from an older group of gods who were displaced by a newer group.
History of Ireland appearing in the 1630s claimed that the Fomorians had been a seafaring people descended from Noah's other son, Ham.
++ Tuatha Dé Danann
(TOO-uh-huh day DAH-nawn) "People of the Goddess Danu"
The Tuath(a) Dé Danann (usually translated as "people(s)/tribe(s) of the goddess Danu"), also known by the earlier name Tuath Dé ("tribe of the gods"), are a supernatural race in Irish mythology. They are thought to represent the main deities of pre-Christian Gaelic Ireland.
According to the Annals of the Four Masters, the Tuatha de Danann ruled Ireland from 1897 BC to 1700 BC. The story of their invasion of Ireland and subsequent war with the Fir Bolg (the previous inhabitants) is a fascinating chronicle of ancient Irish history. 
The Tuath Dé dwell in the The Otherworld but interact with humans and the human world. Their traditional rivals are the Fomorians (Fomoire), who seem to represent the harmful or destructive powers of nature. Each member of the Tuath Dé has been associated with a particular feature of life or nature, but many appear to have more than one association. Many also have bynames, some representing different aspects of the deity and others being regional names or epithets.
Much of Irish mythology was recorded by Christian monks, who modified it to an extent. They often depicted the Tuath Dé as kings, queens and heroes of the distant past who had supernatural powers or who were later credited with them. Other times they were explained as fallen angels who were neither good nor evil. However, some medieval writers acknowledged that they were once gods.
The Tuatha were a highly civilized people, and tradition holds that the Fir Bolg held their conquerors in high esteem. The people of the Goddess Danu possessed remarkable domestic skills; so much so, that those they conquered deemed the Tuatha magicians and Gods.
The King of the Tuatha, Nuada, had lost an arm in the battle against the Fir Bolg. Tradition has it that because he was now blemished, he could no longer be King. In his place the champion of the Tuatha de Danann, Breas (part Formorian or Sea raider), now became King.
Breas ruled for seven years, but in this time, he thoroughly disenchanted his people by bending to Formorian demands. The people were not well fed, the crops were poor, and the final straw came when Breas insulted a poet. He was quickly ousted from command, and in his place returned Nuada, who now had a new arm made of silver.
Breas fled to the Hebrides, where he complained to his father, a Fomorian. A great host (army) was raised, so large that their ships filled the sea from Ireland to the Hebrides. Upon landing the Formorian host and Tuatha met in battle at northern Moytura, in Sligo. The Tuatha won the day and the power of the Formorians was broken forever in Ireland. Nuada died fighting the Formorians, and a hero of the battle, Lugh, became the new King of Ireland.
After Lugh, Dagda was king, and after Dagda followed his three grandsons. During the rule of the three grandsons, the Milesians came and in another great battle conquered the Tuatha de Danann. The Legends say that from then on, the Tuatha were permitted to stay in Ireland, but underground only. From then on they became the fairy folk of legends.
The Tuatha's skills in the arts and domestic life were even respected by their conquerors the Milesians. It is said that the Tuatha had four great treasures or talismans that showed their skills in arts, crafts and magic. The first treasure was the Stone of Fal, which would scream whenever a true king of Ireland would place his foot on it. The next talisman was the Magic Sword of Nuada, a weapon that only inflicted mortal blows when drawn. The third treasure was the Sling-shot of the Sun God Lugh, that never missed its target. The final treasure is the Cauldron of Dagda from which an inexhaustible supply of food came forth. 
The Danann tried to live peaceably with the Sons of Mileadh who had conquered them, but finally they revolted. When they were put down, their leader the Daghda led them into the Magh Mór. There they flourished, and became part of the Faerie nobility. Though often mistaken for the Daoine Sídhe (and vice versa), they remain a distinct race, though some intermarriage has occurred. Though exceedingly powerful in their own right, they are not as inimical towards the human race as the Sídhe, but that is beginning to change.
The Tuath Dé eventually became the Aos Sí or "fairies" of later folklore.
Still another group of theories assumes that Faeries are dwindled gods, who through many generations of people retelling their myths, go from being deities to nature spirits, especially after the coming of Christianity. In Ireland, the legends and folktales do claim that the ancient Tuatha Dé Danann and Fir Bholg retreated under the mounds to become the first Faeries, and most mythographers believe they were the gods of the ancient Irish.
Dian Cécht (Dian Cecht) was the great physician, who had replaced Nuada's hand with magical silver hand. Nuada became known as Nuada Airgedlámh (Nuada of the Silver Hand). With a new hand, the Dananns willingly accepted Nuada as king, and had Bres stepped down from the throne. Bres however reconquered Ireland, aided by his grandfather Balor, the Fomorian leaders.
The Dananns then had to suffer from oppression from the Fomorian overlord, until the arrival of Lugh, son of Cian (Kian). Lugh sided with Nuada, and in the second battle of Moytura (Magh Tuiredh). During the battle, Balor killed Nuada. The Fomorians were defeated when Lugh killed Balor with his sling.
Eventually the Tuatha De Dannan left Tara Hill for the mounds and live there or deep in the sea. Others say they live in a completely different dimension also known as Tír na nÓg, or "The Land of Youth."
The Tuatha Dé Danann were descended from Nemed, leader of a previous wave of inhabitants of Ireland. They came from four cities to the north of Ireland–Falias, Gorias, Murias and Finias–where they acquired their magical skills and attributes. According to Lebor Gabála Érenn, they came to Ireland "in dark clouds" and "landed on the mountains of (the) Conmaicne Rein in Connachta; and they brought a darkness over the sun for three days and three nights". According to a later version of the story, they arrived in ships on the coast of the Conmaicne Mara's territory (modern Connemara). They immediately burnt the ships "so that they should not think of retreating to them; and the smoke and the mist that came from the vessels filled the neighboring land and air. Therefore it was conceived that they had arrived in clouds of mist".
A poem in the Lebor Gabála Érenn says of their arrival:
It is God who suffered them, though He restrained them
they landed with horror, with lofty deed,
in their cloud of mighty combat of spectres,
upon a mountain of Conmaicne of Connacht.
Without distinction to descerning Ireland,
Without ships, a ruthless course
the truth was not known beneath the sky of stars,
whether they were of heaven or of earth.
So in Ireland the gods in the Tuatha De Danann were degenerated to the roles of fairies (eg. Dagda and Lugh), people living under the dune mound or fabled islands, or even within underwater domains. The Dananns or their Welsh counterparts were usually seen as race of fair people. They can die just as mortals can, but their lives could last hundreds or even thousands of years.
Four jewels of the Tuatha De Dannan are in the four island cities Murias, Falias, Gorias and Findias.
Morfessa or Fessus
Goirias or Gorias
No battle was ever sustained against it, or against the man who held it.
Findias or Finias
Uiscias or Uscias
No one ever escaped from it once it was drawn from its sheath, and no one could resist it. The sword is also described in the Tain legend as 'Nuadu's Cainnel' - a glowing bright torch.
Muirias or Murias
Cauldron (coire) of the Dagda
No company ever went away from it unsatisfied.
Social or trooping fairies are those who lived in large company, like in a clan. The Tuatha de Danann who lived in the sidh, ruled by a king, and sometimes a queen (or both), can be considered as the social fairies. They were often seen feasting, singing and dancing. They can be either benevolent or hostile to humans.
Generally, they can recognise by the type of jackets they wore. The social fairies wore green jackets, while the solitary fairies wore red ones, but sometimes their jackets are brown or grey.
+Faults Condemned by Faeries
Faeries dislike boasters, braggarts, and babblers. Meanness, rudeness, and selfishness are unpopular with them, as is slovenliness, sluttishness, ill-temper, and bad manners. Gloominess is shunned, and to thank them for a gift is a breach of etiquette. However, the worst crime of all is to infringe on their privacy.
One power they all share is the ability to bestow continual good fortune on those who please them or do them favors, and continual bad luck on those who upset them.
Another power all Faeries share is glamour, the magic of *illusion*, whereby they can make people see whatever they wish them to see, or not see whatever they do not wish them to see. The aristocrats can create whole kingdoms with this power, whereas the smallest rustics can at least become *invisible*. Akin to this is the ability to mislead people by *hiding or changing the appearance of familiar landmarks*, or* disguising treacherous ground to make it appear safe*. *Shape-shifting* is also based on this power, and most Faeries have the ability to transform themselves into any form they desire, or to make themselves appear as tiny or as huge as they wish.
Most Faeries also have some *control over the weather* and the seasons. At the very least, they can cause blight on plants and illness in animals and humans. In fact, Faeries can cause illness, injury, and even death using the "Faerie stroke", a kind of weapon that they can direct at an enemy. Similarly, however, Faeries can also heal injuries and cure the sick when they wish to.
The ability to cause sickness and injury also explains another power, the ability to steal the toradh, or nutritional goodness, from food. This can be done in a number of different ways, such as mystically removing it, leaving only a husk, or actually destroying it, such as burning a barn full of wheat. The weaker Faeries will even steal the food outright, either invisibly or in the guise of vermin.
A common power, though usually restricted to the Trooping Faeries, is *levitation* and *flight*. This is also accomplished by a number of different means. One way was to recite a spell or magical phrase, such as "Horse and Hattock!" or "Boram, Boram, Boram!" A few of the Heroic Faeries are able to fly by their own will. However, most Faeries require some sort of apparatus, such as ragwort stalks and magical caps. Humans can sometimes join the Faeries in their flying revels, and sometimes they snatch unwilling humans and carry them along, either to be taken to Faerieland or dumped in some far away country. Faeries are also able to *levitate objects* as well as themselves or people, anything from dishes to whole buildings.
Perhaps the most basic power is the ability to influence fertility. Though this is reflected in a number of the powers described earlier, their interest in fertility, particularly agriculture and human love, is part of their nature. Many stories describe in general terms how a farmer who honors his Good Neighbors prospers because the Faeries watch over his crops, animals, and family, protecting and nurturing them, whereas a farmer who dishonors them comes to ruin because the Faeries attack his crops, animals, and family, blighting and killing them
The power to utilize magic involving the dead, life-force and/or souls. Sub-power of Dark Arts. Form of Magic. Opposite to Animancy. Practitioners of this trade are known as Necromancers.
Learn from the Book of Shadows.
- Necro Magic
- Undeath Magic
The user's magical abilities revolve around manipulating the dead, death, the life-force and/or souls for good (i.e., resurrecting the dead), evil (in various ways) or neither. Users can also use communicate with the deceased – either by summoning their spirit as an apparition or raising them bodily – for the purpose of divination, imparting the means to foretell future events or discover hidden knowledge.
Many practitioners find a way to cheat death one way or another, whether by becoming some form of undead creature or by bypassing their own ability to die.
- Aura Absorption
- Death Inducement
- Death Sense
- Divination - by contacting dead/undead beings
- Ectoplasm Manipulation
- Life-Force Absorption
- Mold Manipulation - dead matter
- Motor-Skill Manipulation - dead/undead beings
- Pain Inducement
- Pain Suppression
- Soul Manipulation
- Soul Absorption
- Summoning/Banishment - deceased souls and/or corpses
- Soul Summoning
- Undead Summoning
- Undead Manipulation
- Cemetery Empowerment
- Death Empowerment
- Cemetery Empowerment
- Curse Inducement
- Dark Arts
- Death-Force Manipulation
- Grim Reaper Physiology
- Necroplasmic Conversion
- Nether Manipulation
- Rot Inducement
- Spirit Physiology
- Undead Physiology
- Vodou Deity Physiology
May be Weak against Animancy and other Life-Based powers.
The power to utilize magic involving the living, life-force and/or souls. Practitioners of this trade are known as Animancers. Form of Magic and White Arts. Opposite power of Necromancy.
- Birth/Life Magic
- Necromantic White Magic
- White Necromancy
The user's magical abilities revolve around manipulating the living, life, the life-force, spiritual energy and organic forms. Users can create new forms of life, grant life to the lifeless, animate things, manipulate the life force of the universe and those connected to it.
Many practitioners find a way to make peace with idea that death is everywhere and that life and death are both inevitable forces and can't exist with out the other. Practitioners also have the potential to create or find new ways to bring new life in existence, either by animation, evolution, any way possible.
- Death Negation
- Health Manipulation
- Life-Force Manipulation
- Life Mastery
- Emotional Energy Manipulation
- Evolutionary Template
- Genetic Access
- Sentience Inducement
- Organic Manipulation
- Pain Suppression
- Spirit Magic
- Spiritual Force Manipulation
- Life-Force Empowerment
- Life Empowerment
- Life Transcendence
- Aether Manipulation
- Blessing Inducement
- Entity Creation
- Genesis Creation
- Infinite Life Energy
- Life Creation
- Samsara Manipulation
- Soul Creation
- White Arts
Necromancy/death-based powers may be especially effective against this power.