Peacemakers in the 20th Century United States

This website highlights to work of students Hope College class “Peace Movements in the 20th Century United States.” To frame this website, we use the concepts articulated by sociologist and Peace Studies pioneer Johan Galtung: negative peace and positive peace. Students worked in groups to focus on the ways individuals in the 20th century United States either worked to end war and violence (negative peace) or sought to create conditions that would prevent war and conflict in the first place (positive peace). Our overall goal is to examine how women and men in different historical contexts and of different races, classes and religions envisioned and more peaceful world and acted on their vision.

Image of the members of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1915.

Members of the women’s International League for Peace and Freedom heading to a 1915 peace convention in the Hague. Image Courtesy of the Library of Congress.