E7 - Cities

A new generation...

On a wild new frontier.

Rising into the sky

Leaning towers of steels

A bold new urban landscape, may be

America's greatest invention

The modern vertical city

We are pioneers and trailblazers

We fight for freedom.

We transform our dreams into the truth,

Our struggles will become a nation.

America Land of invention -

Hot-dogs, jazz, the elevator, skyscrapers.

This is the story of the greatest innovation of all

The modern vertical city

One world famous icon has come to symbolize it

Amazingly, we very nearly didn't have it

It's 1885 and New York City has a big problem.

A magnificent gift but with some assembly required

Scattered across Bedloe's Island in New York harbor in 214 crates.

They contain the largest statue in the Western world

It's been donated by the people of France

to celebrate the centenary (100) of the Declaration of Independence

Built in Paris, broken down into 350 massive pieces

For the journey to America.

That's the problem.

The cost of reassembling it would be astronomical --

Money, New York does not have.

At least 6 other US cities are jockeying to give it a home.

New York City is in danger of losing the Statue of Liberty.

Not if this man can help it.

Joseph Pulitzer, tenacious newspaper magnate

Immigrant, a self-made man

He owns the biggest paper in the US: "The New York World".

And he's determined to keep Liberty in New York harbor

Through his chain of newspapers

Pulitzer launches the biggest fund-raising campaign ever seen in North America

"It would be an irrevocable disgrace to New York city and the American republic"

"To have France send us this splendid gift"

"Without our having provided even so much as a landing place for it."

"We must raise the money!"

More than a million people read Pulitzer's papers every day

Enclosed please find 25 cents, is my contribution to...

It contains my little savings ...

...I resolved to send you the contents of the first jackpot

You will find enclosed 4 dollar

The money we saved to go to the circus with.

Donations flood in from all across the country,

Rich and poor, East and West.

Pennies and nickels

5s and 10s. Even 1000s of dollars

In all, a staggering 121,000 donations.

More than enough to keep this iconic statue in New York

I think a statue is not just a statue.

I think symbols really matter

I think they signify, in a big way

In fact, may be they do more than reams and reams and reams of

Legislation and paper and print

Now the real work begins.

To hold a statue 150 feet high

The pedestal will be the biggest concrete structure in the world

Over 200 men work through a grueling winter to complete it.

As the last of the cement dries

Workers toss in their own silver dollars for good luck.

Next, Liberty's enormous iron skeleton.

It's designed by Gustave Eiffel

Who will build famous Eiffel Tower in Paris.

The skeleton is 151 feet tall

And with the pedestal, it's the height of a 30-story office block

Now for the outer layer.

Wrapping around the skeletons are 60,000 pounds of hand-sculpted copper

The sandal is 32 times bigger than a human foot.

Equivalent of the size of 879 shoes

It's all on the job training

Often and 300 feet in the air

It's as difficult, as it is dangerous

They need to fix 300 pieces of copper shell to the framework

With more than 300,000 rivets.

Her robes have over 4,000 square yards to cover her

Her outstretched arm is 42 feet long

A finger nail weighs 3.5 pounds

The scale of Liberty is unimaginable.

After 6 months of hazardous construction

There's no fatalities, the Liberties 17-feet face

is finally winched to position

It's bigger than Lincoln's on Mount Rushmore.

It's said the sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi,

Modeled the face on his own mother

It takes 25 years Liberty to acidize and turn green

A functioning lighthouse until 1902

The statue's official name is: "Liberty, Enlightening the World."

At first, the symbol of the alliance and friendships

Between France, and the 13 colonies in the American Revolution.

It will come to represent much more

At the entrance to New York Harbor,

The Statue of Liberty becomes a beacon to the world

And a welcome to millions.

Later, a poem by Emma Lazarus in her base,

Celebrates America as a land of refugees:

"Give me your tired, your poor,"

"Your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free,"

"The wretched refuse of your teeming shore."

"Send these, the homeless, tempest-toast to me,"

. "I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

Over the next two decades, more than 12 million immigrants

Pass the statue of Liberty on their way to Ellis Island.

The first stop for most new Americans.

Imagine what it took for someone to leave eastern Poland or Lithuania,

Or some village in the mountains of Northern Italy

And come all the way to this strange place with nothing.

Today, more than 100 million Americans can trace the roots back to ancestors

Who came through Ellis Island.

If you go back only 150 years

In our 200-and-almost-50 years history

95% of the people were... not here

They are no roots, they all came from someplace else

So, to me, America represents

The best of the human's sprit

A guidebook prepares arrivals for a new life in a new world.

"Forget your customs and ideals,"

"Select a goal and pursue it with all your might."

"You would experience a bad time"

"But sooner or later, you will achieve your goal."

"Don't take a moment's rest. Run."

And from Ellis Island, they spread out across the continent.

For the most part, Irish, Russians and Italians to big cities.

Germans to the Midwest.

Scandinavians to farmland

At the dawn of the 20th century

Eventually, there will be more Italians in New York than in Rome.

From 1880 to 1930

Nearly 24 million new immigrants arrive in the U.S...

A new era in US history is about to begin.

By the early 20th century

New urban megacities around America are bursting to the seams

And look to expand in a new direction: Up.

But building these great towers

Demands a critical ingredient that's much too expensive

Steel. One man will change all that

And with it, the face of America

He'll risk everything, and almost lose it all

Its 1872, and Andrew Carnegie,

A 5-feet-3 Scottish immigrant iron millionaire,

Is in Sheffield, England.

He's looking at the future.

A revolutionary way to make steel.

Steel has been around for thousands of years,

But so expensive to produce, it's always been a luxury item,

2,000 years ago it's used in Oriental swords.

It is even used in designer jewelry

But America stands at the brink of a new age

To build it, they need steel-- and lots of it.

It's the only material strong enough for the towers that will touch the sky

An English bullet maker is showing

Carnegie a new but simple method to producing steel.

He's stunned. Blast hot air through molten iron

Carbon impurities burn off You get the wonder material Steel...

For the first time, it can be produced quickly and inexpensively

If Carnegie can use this Bessemer process to mass-produce it,

He'll own the future Carnegie returns to the states,

To Pittsburgh, to start building the biggest steel plant in the world

It'll be larger than 80 football fields

It's a massive gamble

Carnegie risks everything he's got on the new plant.

But only months into construction...Disaster.

a catastrophic stock-market collapse.

The economy is in free fall.

he has to borrow even more money and barely scrapes through.

August 1875. Against all odds

Carnegie's giant furnaces are ready to test.

steel production is phenomenally dangerous.

Inside, 5 tons of molten metal. 3000 degrees

Hot enough to vaporize a man in seconds.

If it works, it will make Carnegie one of the richest men in the world

But there's a lot more at stake.

Skyscrapers, cars, washing machines, airplanes,

Even space travel,

None of it can happen if steel can't be mass-produced

It's a success Carnegie is the first ever to mass-produce steel.

Prices plummet by over 80%.

Output rockets from a few thousand tons in 1860

To 11 million by 1900.

So many American stories of success

Are diligence, are perseverance,

But there's an awful lot of luck involved too

His timing couldn't have been better

It was steel that built American cities,

It was steel that built American railroads,

It was steel that built American shipping.

By the beginning of the 20th century, he was one of the wealthiest men in America

Pittsburgh transforms from a sleepy town

To the industrial heart of the nation.

Its Population triples. Driven by a new steel railroad

Millions of tons of steel are transported across America

The raw material to build the modern city

And the grandest of all is New York.

It's an era of obscene opulence.

New York is a playground for super rich industrialists and financiers

Widely extravagant, they smoke cigars rolled in 100 dollar bills.

Their wives' hats - studded with diamonds.

this is the Gilded Age.

Land values are the highest in the world

There's only one place to go: Up.

By 1902, 65 skyscrapers are being constructed in Manhattan

This is one of them. It's called "Walking the steel."

This man is 30 stories above the street.

His first time at this height

No harness or safety rope

One slip...And he's dead

Veterans are called "Fixers."

the novices are "Snakes"

Because working with them can be deadly.

The old hand knows just how dangerous it can be.

"The thing I hate worse than poison

"Is to take a new man when we're near the top"

"They all get used to it or get killed."

No hard hats, just a 280-foot drop

A sudden gust of wind and it's all over

They're up here 8 hours a day

Meals when they can.

No bath room breaks

They're called roughnecks,

European immigrants and Mohawk Indians

Many were sailors and bridge workers

So they're used to heights.

The guys balancing on the beams

I think it took a lot of bravery, I think it took a lot of skill,

A lot of physically--physically challenging,

But I also think it--you had to be a little crazy

The stakes couldn't be higher

It's a risk they're willing to take

The pay is 4 dollars a day, twice the going rate for manual labor

Foreman William Starrett sums up his dangerous job

"Building skyscrapers is the nearest peacetime equivalent of war"

"Even to the occasional grim reality of an accident"

"Or a maimed body, even death"

"Remind us that we are fighting a war of construction"

"Against the forces of nature."

He makes it, many aren't so lucky

Two roughnecks out of five die or are disabled on the job

Whether it's a builder or an architect

Or... whatever, whoever had the imagination to design and build

Some of the great structures of New York,

I'm inspired by

In 1902, in New York, this is what the future looks like

the Flatiron Building.

Its triangular footprint

Determined by the intersection of three streets, not two.

The steel frame means the outside

Can be hung in sections like a suit of clothes

Now the walls don't take the weight, the steel does

It's so radical, when people first see it

they think it will blow over and kill them

A lawsuit is filed claiming

"Winds focused by this Flatiron's extreme shape"

"Damage a nearby shop"

Today it's one of our best-loved buildings

Inside, the other breakthrough

That lets towers rise into the clouds.

The elevator.

Before it, the tallest buildings stop mostly at five floors

No more walking up stairs now, so the sky's the limit.

For the first time, the higher the floor, the higher the rent

You think it's a fairly humble invention,

But when Otis invented the first really safe elevator

It enabled the growth of the modern city, where people could come in,

Build much taller buildings, get a much higher density of people

And sure enough, by the end of the 19th century,

The urban population has increased 87 times over.

In Chicago alone, in just 10 years,

They built 50 steel-frame buildings

And in 20 years, it's population more than doubles to almost 1.7 million

American cities are exploding

But for many, living in the shadow of these new towers

Will prove even harder than buildings them.

In America in 1890, crime and poverty are rife on the streets

But these mavericks are about to make a difference

Gangsters, murders, thieves and fear are on the streets

New tabloid newspapers splash crime all over the front pages

In Chicago, you can rent a gun by the hour.

In the Sears Catalog, you can buy one for 12 dollars

In New York, a policeman finds a list on a murdered gangster--

his rate card. Punches: 2 dollars

Nose and jaw broke: 10 dollars

ear chewed off: 15 dollars

The big job: 100 bucks and up

Detective Bureau Chief Thomas Byrnes--

A man who follows his own set of rules he's shrewd.

And he's very tough

Among his methods is a technique his detectives, call "The third degree."

First degree: Persuasion.

Second degree: Intimidation.

Third degree: Pain.

In 4 years, Byrnes claims he's arrested 3,300 Criminals

he solved the biggest heist of the 19th century ...

Nearly a 3 million dollar Manhattan bank robbery

Reporters called him the greatest crime buster

In the history of the New York City police force

"His very manner."

"The size of him"

"His menacing shoulders and arms"

"The bark of his voice"

Pickpockets! Forgers!

Whoever cracked the safe, unscrupulous rogues

"Crooks are now afraid of their shadows."

They lead double lives.

But tracking down criminals isn't easy

There's no official ID

No birth certificates or driver's licenses.

If a criminal is known in one town, he just moved to the next

Criminals are anonymous

Byrnes is tackling this problem head-on

And bringing police work into a new age.

This is his rogues gallery,

Mug shots of 7,000 known lawbreakers

Using photography to identify criminals

Will change detective work forever

Annie Reilly. Alias: Middle Annie, Deceitful servant

The mug shots are distributed to police departments around the country

But these are more than just pictures

Byrnes is also building psychological profiles of criminals

Rufus Minor. He comes from a very good family

It's a pity he's a thief

This is the first attempt to create a national crime register

A city as diverse as ours

Is going to have a significant crime problem that you've gotta be on top of

Even today, mug shot still catch criminals

12 million are taken every year nation wide

That's more than the entire population of Ohio.

And it all began with the rogue's gallery over 120 years ago

Any questions?

But crime isn't the only problem plaguing urban streets

In many cities, slums are reaching epidemic proportions

Multiple families crammed into one small room

Human waste pours into the streets, alleys and open courtyards

people were crowded in, there were windowless tenements.

Sometimes you had no internal plumbing

Just provides in the basement, in the backyard

And the Lower East Side during these years

Was the single most crowded place in the entire world

Jacob Riis, Danish immigrant,

Crime reporter, photographer

He gets leads for stories from Chief Inspector Byrnes.

Now he's about to expose the hell of tenements.

Jacob Riis knows what it's like to be poor.

15 years ago, he lost his job in a stock market crash.

It's midnight, but Riis has a new technology

That will change the public perception of poverty forever

An explosive powder that produces enough light to photograph in the dark

This is one of the first-ever photographs of slum life....Go

It shocks millions

Ladies and gentlemen, my name is Jacob A.Riis

And this is how the other half live and die in New York City.

Magazines refuse to print his work

So Riis puts on his own "Magic lantern" Shows

His mission: to show the nation's wealthy

Something they've never seen before,

filth(汚物) and desperation on their doorstep

In this block, nine dead were carried out this year alone.

Five in baby coffins.

What he demonstrated was that there is another reality,

That all that prosperity didn't trickle down all the way to the bottom,

And there was some deplorable living conditions, and this country

Was not just forced to confront those conditions

But then was moved to begin to deal with them

Riis publishes his pictures in a book called "How the Other Half Lives."

It will sell more than 28 million copies

Within 2 decades, the worst of New York's slums are torn down

Tenements sell at auction for as a little as a dollar

Riis' campaigning forces all New York schools to build playgrounds

And landlords to install toilets inside apartments, not outside

It is the first step in tackling the slums

But as cities keep on growing, an even bigger challenge remains

In New York alone, nearly 40,000 die in one year from diseases

Because of this...Filth.

But one clean crusader is about to change everything

1895. Our major cities are drowning in filth.

120,000 horses dump half a million pounds of manure.

Into the New York streets every day

Wagons are blocked by 3-foot-high piles

Of human and animal waste

Into this world steps a man on a white horse

Colonel George Waring.

Civil War veteran,

Legendary sewer engineer, "Apostle of Cleanliness"

He's the Head of New York Sanitation Department

"The city's stinks with the emanations of putrefying organic matter"

"Black rottenness is seen and smelled on every hand."

"The crowded streets are a veritable hell."

Wearing recruits an army of

2,000 sanitation workers in white uniforms.

Some dismiss him as a crank.

They call his men "White Ducks" but Waring means business

Tons of garbage, normally dumped into the river, is recycled

Ash becomes land fill on Rikers Island

Organic waste boiled into oil and grease.

Waring is America's first "Eco-warrior"

His men clean 433 miles of street

Death rates decline, water quality improves.

Waring save the lives of thousands

The measure spread across America

Just 16 years after Colonel Waring,

Half of all cities have waste collection.

And it's not just waste.

By 1907, every large city in the nation has sewers.

By 1909, there are 42,040 miles of sewers in America

The battle against filth, crime and poverty has begun.

But one of the city's greatest innovations is still in its infancy

One man will change the urban landscape forever.

Menlo Park, New Jersey, 1879.

Thomas Edison: inventor, entrepreneur, showman

He was taken out of school as a boy

but that won't stop him from becoming synonymous.

With inventions that define the modern era

He pushes his team hard, 24/7.

In one of the world's first R&D labs

It will generate more than 1,000 patents.

America still lights the night

In the dangers flick candles, gas and kerosene

Edison thinks he has a better idea

If he can get a filament to burn slowly in a vacuum

The electric light bulb. Platinum.

Edison locks himself in his lab, doesn't sleep for days

The stakes are high.

His backers have sunk 130,000 dollars into his research,

Millions in today's money.

He claimed to have gone through 6000 materials from the plant world alone in his search for the perfect filament

Turn on the lamp, Jack.

Spruce. Beard. Fish line. Thread. Teak.Boxwood. Celluloid, parchment.

Then something extraordinary happens. Cardboard.

A piece of carbonized cardboard burns for 300 hours.

It's going to change the way people live forever

What Edison does is nothing less than to banish the darkness.

Now think of meaning of that

Think of what that means to daily life

New Year's Eve 1879.

Edison shows off his new invention

Thousands of people flock to his lab

To see the future take shape

The Pennsylvania Railroad arranges special trains

To accommodate the crowds.

When Thomas Edison invented that light bulb, that electric light bulb,

What a-- how magical that must have been

You know, to sit there and just all of a sudden,

Without a match, without kerosene or gas, and just flip a switch and...

Light. In just 2 years, Edison builds more than 5,000 power plants,

Generating electricity for cities like

New York, Boston, Chicago, Detroit,

St. Louis and New Orleans.

Over the next 5 years, he builds over 127,000 more

By 1902, 18 million bulbs in use.

The impact is massive.

Sports, entertainment, factories, stores,

All can now operate at night

And as electricity comes to the cities

More and more people arrive with it

By 1900, nearly 4 million women are working in US cities

In just 40 years, that figure has more than quadrupled

urban factories are pounding out

75% of all consumer products in the US

Places like this, modern steel-frame buildings

Equipped with all the latest technology

Otis electric elevators, Bell telephones, Singer sewing machines.

But packing so many people into tall buildings

Is a disaster waiting to happen

The United States is hurtling into the modern age

Symbolized by megacities rising up all across the continent.

By 1909 Americans are spending nearly 23 Billion dollars a year

On ready-made clothes

This factory is producing 12,000 garments a week.

Known as shirtwaists, they're the latest fashion for the working woman

New York City, March 25, 1911. 4:45 PM.

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, 8th floor.

260 girls work here, most of them teenagers.

Someone-- we don't know who--

Tosses a match, or maybe a cigarette into the scrap bin

Eva Harris, a seamstress, smells burning. Fire.

There's a fire, Mr. Bernstein

Production manager Samuel Bernstein grabs one of the three fire pails...

But the fire is already spreading

There's a mad dash for the exit, but it is too narrow.

Only one at a time can pass through

It's been designed that way so their bags can be checked for stolen fabric

There's a fire hose...But it's not working. No water!

The only way to warn the floors above is through the switchboard 2 floors up, on the 10th floor

Hello, switchboard? 10th floor. Fire, there's fire.

Put me through to the 9th floor!

She drops the phone and runs to get help

The message never reaches the 9th floor.

Samuel Bernstein

Races up the main stairs to help the 160 workers trapped there

But blocking the front door, there's a barrel of motor oil

On the 9th floor, flames already shooting through the walls and windows

The girls on 9 rush to the fire escape, but it's locked

Only 2 escape routes are left on the 9th floor

The elevator and the metal fire escape

Kate Weiner makes it to the elevator door

But she's lost her sister

"Everyone was knocking and crying for the elevator comes up.

"Suddenly the elevator came and the girls rushed in"

"I was searching for my sister, Rose, but I couldn't find her"

"The flames were coming toward me and I was being left behind"

"I felt the elevator was leaving the 9th floor for the last time"

She's the last person to get to the last elevator

More than 100 girls are left behind to die

The only escape route left

Is the metal fire escape but it collapses.

Firemen arrived with the biggest ladder in New York City

But it's 30 feet too short. 4:58 PM.

The girls trapped on the 9th floor are out of options,

In desperation... they jump 5.15 PM.

The entire blaze is over in less than half an hour

146 people die in the Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire

There's trial, but the owners walk free

It remains the deadliest workplace disaster in New York City history

Until September 11, 2001.

But some good does come out of it

This dramatic tragedy sparks a wave of reform,

So you begin to get new restrictions and a new conversation about what to do

To prevent this kind of tragedy from happening

But it did not stop, of course, that tragedy itself

Unions force management to take responsibility

For the lives of their workers.

The Life Safety Code now used in all 50 States

Is a direct result of this fire

Its why doors now open outwards in public buildings,

Why automatic sprinkler systems or multiple exits are now the law

The US and the modern city grew up together

Typically new, enormous and fast-paced,

The megacity is one of America's great inventions