E7 - Cities
A new generation...
On a wild new frontier.
Rising into the sky
Leaning towers of steels
A bold new urban landscape, may be
America's greatest invention
The modern vertical city
We are pioneers and trailblazers
We fight for freedom.
We transform our dreams into the truth,
Our struggles will become a nation.
America Land of invention -
Hot-dogs, jazz, the elevator, skyscrapers.
This is the story of the greatest innovation of all
The modern vertical city
One world famous icon has come to symbolize it
Amazingly, we very nearly didn't have it
It's 1885 and New York City has a big problem.
A magnificent gift but with some assembly required
Scattered across Bedloe's Island in New York harbor in 214 crates.
They contain the largest statue in the Western world
It's been donated by the people of France
to celebrate the centenary (100) of the Declaration of Independence
Built in Paris, broken down into 350 massive pieces
For the journey to America.
That's the problem.
The cost of reassembling it would be astronomical --
Money, New York does not have.
At least 6 other US cities are jockeying to give it a home.
New York City is in danger of losing the Statue of Liberty.
Not if this man can help it.
Joseph Pulitzer, tenacious newspaper magnate
Immigrant, a self-made man
He owns the biggest paper in the US: "The New York World".
And he's determined to keep Liberty in New York harbor
Through his chain of newspapers
Pulitzer launches the biggest fund-raising campaign ever seen in North America
"It would be an irrevocable disgrace to New York city and the American republic"
"To have France send us this splendid gift"
"Without our having provided even so much as a landing place for it."
"We must raise the money!"
More than a million people read Pulitzer's papers every day
Enclosed please find 25 cents, is my contribution to...
It contains my little savings ...
...I resolved to send you the contents of the first jackpot
You will find enclosed 4 dollar
The money we saved to go to the circus with.
Donations flood in from all across the country,
Rich and poor, East and West.
Pennies and nickels
5s and 10s. Even 1000s of dollars
In all, a staggering 121,000 donations.
More than enough to keep this iconic statue in New York
I think a statue is not just a statue.
I think symbols really matter
I think they signify, in a big way
In fact, may be they do more than reams and reams and reams of
Legislation and paper and print
Now the real work begins.
To hold a statue 150 feet high
The pedestal will be the biggest concrete structure in the world
Over 200 men work through a grueling winter to complete it.
As the last of the cement dries
Workers toss in their own silver dollars for good luck.
Next, Liberty's enormous iron skeleton.
It's designed by Gustave Eiffel
Who will build famous Eiffel Tower in Paris.
The skeleton is 151 feet tall
And with the pedestal, it's the height of a 30-story office block
Now for the outer layer.
Wrapping around the skeletons are 60,000 pounds of hand-sculpted copper
The sandal is 32 times bigger than a human foot.
Equivalent of the size of 879 shoes
It's all on the job training
Often and 300 feet in the air
It's as difficult, as it is dangerous
They need to fix 300 pieces of copper shell to the framework
With more than 300,000 rivets.
Her robes have over 4,000 square yards to cover her
Her outstretched arm is 42 feet long
A finger nail weighs 3.5 pounds
The scale of Liberty is unimaginable.
After 6 months of hazardous construction
There's no fatalities, the Liberties 17-feet face
is finally winched to position
It's bigger than Lincoln's on Mount Rushmore.
It's said the sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi,
Modeled the face on his own mother
It takes 25 years Liberty to acidize and turn green
A functioning lighthouse until 1902
The statue's official name is: "Liberty, Enlightening the World."
At first, the symbol of the alliance and friendships
Between France, and the 13 colonies in the American Revolution.
It will come to represent much more
At the entrance to New York Harbor,
The Statue of Liberty becomes a beacon to the world
And a welcome to millions.
Later, a poem by Emma Lazarus in her base,
Celebrates America as a land of refugees:
"Give me your tired, your poor,"
"Your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free,"
"The wretched refuse of your teeming shore."
"Send these, the homeless, tempest-toast to me,"
. "I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
Over the next two decades, more than 12 million immigrants
Pass the statue of Liberty on their way to Ellis Island.
The first stop for most new Americans.
Imagine what it took for someone to leave eastern Poland or Lithuania,
Or some village in the mountains of Northern Italy
And come all the way to this strange place with nothing.
Today, more than 100 million Americans can trace the roots back to ancestors
Who came through Ellis Island.
If you go back only 150 years
In our 200-and-almost-50 years history
95% of the people were... not here
They are no roots, they all came from someplace else
So, to me, America represents
The best of the human's sprit
A guidebook prepares arrivals for a new life in a new world.
"Forget your customs and ideals,"
"Select a goal and pursue it with all your might."
"You would experience a bad time"
"But sooner or later, you will achieve your goal."
"Don't take a moment's rest. Run."
And from Ellis Island, they spread out across the continent.
For the most part, Irish, Russians and Italians to big cities.
Germans to the Midwest.
Scandinavians to farmland
At the dawn of the 20th century
Eventually, there will be more Italians in New York than in Rome.
From 1880 to 1930
Nearly 24 million new immigrants arrive in the U.S...
A new era in US history is about to begin.
By the early 20th century
New urban megacities around America are bursting to the seams
And look to expand in a new direction: Up.
But building these great towers
Demands a critical ingredient that's much too expensive
Steel. One man will change all that
And with it, the face of America
He'll risk everything, and almost lose it all
Its 1872, and Andrew Carnegie,
A 5-feet-3 Scottish immigrant iron millionaire,
Is in Sheffield, England.
He's looking at the future.
A revolutionary way to make steel.
Steel has been around for thousands of years,
But so expensive to produce, it's always been a luxury item,
2,000 years ago it's used in Oriental swords.
It is even used in designer jewelry
But America stands at the brink of a new age
To build it, they need steel-- and lots of it.
It's the only material strong enough for the towers that will touch the sky
An English bullet maker is showing
Carnegie a new but simple method to producing steel.
He's stunned. Blast hot air through molten iron
Carbon impurities burn off You get the wonder material Steel...
For the first time, it can be produced quickly and inexpensively
If Carnegie can use this Bessemer process to mass-produce it,
He'll own the future Carnegie returns to the states,
To Pittsburgh, to start building the biggest steel plant in the world
It'll be larger than 80 football fields
It's a massive gamble
Carnegie risks everything he's got on the new plant.
But only months into construction...Disaster.
a catastrophic stock-market collapse.
The economy is in free fall.
he has to borrow even more money and barely scrapes through.
August 1875. Against all odds
Carnegie's giant furnaces are ready to test.
steel production is phenomenally dangerous.
Inside, 5 tons of molten metal. 3000 degrees
Hot enough to vaporize a man in seconds.
If it works, it will make Carnegie one of the richest men in the world
But there's a lot more at stake.
Skyscrapers, cars, washing machines, airplanes,
Even space travel,
None of it can happen if steel can't be mass-produced
It's a success Carnegie is the first ever to mass-produce steel.
Prices plummet by over 80%.
Output rockets from a few thousand tons in 1860
To 11 million by 1900.
So many American stories of success
Are diligence, are perseverance,
But there's an awful lot of luck involved too
His timing couldn't have been better
It was steel that built American cities,
It was steel that built American railroads,
It was steel that built American shipping.
By the beginning of the 20th century, he was one of the wealthiest men in America
Pittsburgh transforms from a sleepy town
To the industrial heart of the nation.
Its Population triples. Driven by a new steel railroad
Millions of tons of steel are transported across America
The raw material to build the modern city
And the grandest of all is New York.
It's an era of obscene opulence.
New York is a playground for super rich industrialists and financiers
Widely extravagant, they smoke cigars rolled in 100 dollar bills.
Their wives' hats - studded with diamonds.
this is the Gilded Age.
Land values are the highest in the world
There's only one place to go: Up.
By 1902, 65 skyscrapers are being constructed in Manhattan
This is one of them. It's called "Walking the steel."
This man is 30 stories above the street.
His first time at this height
No harness or safety rope
One slip...And he's dead
Veterans are called "Fixers."
the novices are "Snakes"
Because working with them can be deadly.
The old hand knows just how dangerous it can be.
"The thing I hate worse than poison
"Is to take a new man when we're near the top"
"They all get used to it or get killed."
No hard hats, just a 280-foot drop
A sudden gust of wind and it's all over
They're up here 8 hours a day
Meals when they can.
No bath room breaks
They're called roughnecks,
European immigrants and Mohawk Indians
Many were sailors and bridge workers
So they're used to heights.
The guys balancing on the beams
I think it took a lot of bravery, I think it took a lot of skill,
A lot of physically--physically challenging,
But I also think it--you had to be a little crazy
The stakes couldn't be higher
It's a risk they're willing to take
The pay is 4 dollars a day, twice the going rate for manual labor
Foreman William Starrett sums up his dangerous job
"Building skyscrapers is the nearest peacetime equivalent of war"
"Even to the occasional grim reality of an accident"
"Or a maimed body, even death"
"Remind us that we are fighting a war of construction"
"Against the forces of nature."
He makes it, many aren't so lucky
Two roughnecks out of five die or are disabled on the job
Whether it's a builder or an architect
Or... whatever, whoever had the imagination to design and build
Some of the great structures of New York,
I'm inspired by
In 1902, in New York, this is what the future looks like
the Flatiron Building.
Its triangular footprint
Determined by the intersection of three streets, not two.
The steel frame means the outside
Can be hung in sections like a suit of clothes
Now the walls don't take the weight, the steel does
It's so radical, when people first see it
they think it will blow over and kill them
A lawsuit is filed claiming
"Winds focused by this Flatiron's extreme shape"
"Damage a nearby shop"
Today it's one of our best-loved buildings
Inside, the other breakthrough
That lets towers rise into the clouds.
Before it, the tallest buildings stop mostly at five floors
No more walking up stairs now, so the sky's the limit.
For the first time, the higher the floor, the higher the rent
You think it's a fairly humble invention,
But when Otis invented the first really safe elevator
It enabled the growth of the modern city, where people could come in,
Build much taller buildings, get a much higher density of people
And sure enough, by the end of the 19th century,
The urban population has increased 87 times over.
In Chicago alone, in just 10 years,
They built 50 steel-frame buildings
And in 20 years, it's population more than doubles to almost 1.7 million
American cities are exploding
But for many, living in the shadow of these new towers
Will prove even harder than buildings them.
In America in 1890, crime and poverty are rife on the streets
But these mavericks are about to make a difference
Gangsters, murders, thieves and fear are on the streets
New tabloid newspapers splash crime all over the front pages
In Chicago, you can rent a gun by the hour.
In the Sears Catalog, you can buy one for 12 dollars
In New York, a policeman finds a list on a murdered gangster--
his rate card. Punches: 2 dollars
Nose and jaw broke: 10 dollars
ear chewed off: 15 dollars
The big job: 100 bucks and up
Detective Bureau Chief Thomas Byrnes--
A man who follows his own set of rules he's shrewd.
And he's very tough
Among his methods is a technique his detectives, call "The third degree."
First degree: Persuasion.
Second degree: Intimidation.
Third degree: Pain.
In 4 years, Byrnes claims he's arrested 3,300 Criminals
he solved the biggest heist of the 19th century ...
Nearly a 3 million dollar Manhattan bank robbery
Reporters called him the greatest crime buster
In the history of the New York City police force
"His very manner."
"The size of him"
"His menacing shoulders and arms"
"The bark of his voice"
Whoever cracked the safe, unscrupulous rogues
"Crooks are now afraid of their shadows."
They lead double lives.
But tracking down criminals isn't easy
There's no official ID
No birth certificates or driver's licenses.
If a criminal is known in one town, he just moved to the next
Criminals are anonymous
Byrnes is tackling this problem head-on
And bringing police work into a new age.
This is his rogues gallery,
Mug shots of 7,000 known lawbreakers
Using photography to identify criminals
Will change detective work forever
Annie Reilly. Alias: Middle Annie, Deceitful servant
The mug shots are distributed to police departments around the country
But these are more than just pictures
Byrnes is also building psychological profiles of criminals
Rufus Minor. He comes from a very good family
It's a pity he's a thief
This is the first attempt to create a national crime register
A city as diverse as ours
Is going to have a significant crime problem that you've gotta be on top of
Even today, mug shot still catch criminals
12 million are taken every year nation wide
That's more than the entire population of Ohio.
And it all began with the rogue's gallery over 120 years ago
But crime isn't the only problem plaguing urban streets
In many cities, slums are reaching epidemic proportions
Multiple families crammed into one small room
Human waste pours into the streets, alleys and open courtyards
people were crowded in, there were windowless tenements.
Sometimes you had no internal plumbing
Just provides in the basement, in the backyard
And the Lower East Side during these years
Was the single most crowded place in the entire world
Jacob Riis, Danish immigrant,
Crime reporter, photographer
He gets leads for stories from Chief Inspector Byrnes.
Now he's about to expose the hell of tenements.
Jacob Riis knows what it's like to be poor.
15 years ago, he lost his job in a stock market crash.
It's midnight, but Riis has a new technology
That will change the public perception of poverty forever
An explosive powder that produces enough light to photograph in the dark
This is one of the first-ever photographs of slum life....Go
It shocks millions
Ladies and gentlemen, my name is Jacob A.Riis
And this is how the other half live and die in New York City.
Magazines refuse to print his work
So Riis puts on his own "Magic lantern" Shows
His mission: to show the nation's wealthy
Something they've never seen before,
filth(汚物) and desperation on their doorstep
In this block, nine dead were carried out this year alone.
Five in baby coffins.
What he demonstrated was that there is another reality,
That all that prosperity didn't trickle down all the way to the bottom,
And there was some deplorable living conditions, and this country
Was not just forced to confront those conditions
But then was moved to begin to deal with them
Riis publishes his pictures in a book called "How the Other Half Lives."
It will sell more than 28 million copies
Within 2 decades, the worst of New York's slums are torn down
Tenements sell at auction for as a little as a dollar
Riis' campaigning forces all New York schools to build playgrounds
And landlords to install toilets inside apartments, not outside
It is the first step in tackling the slums
But as cities keep on growing, an even bigger challenge remains
In New York alone, nearly 40,000 die in one year from diseases
Because of this...Filth.
But one clean crusader is about to change everything
1895. Our major cities are drowning in filth.
120,000 horses dump half a million pounds of manure.
Into the New York streets every day
Wagons are blocked by 3-foot-high piles
Of human and animal waste
Into this world steps a man on a white horse
Colonel George Waring.
Civil War veteran,
Legendary sewer engineer, "Apostle of Cleanliness"
He's the Head of New York Sanitation Department
"The city's stinks with the emanations of putrefying organic matter"
"Black rottenness is seen and smelled on every hand."
"The crowded streets are a veritable hell."
Wearing recruits an army of
2,000 sanitation workers in white uniforms.
Some dismiss him as a crank.
They call his men "White Ducks" but Waring means business
Tons of garbage, normally dumped into the river, is recycled
Ash becomes land fill on Rikers Island
Organic waste boiled into oil and grease.
Waring is America's first "Eco-warrior"
His men clean 433 miles of street
Death rates decline, water quality improves.
Waring save the lives of thousands
The measure spread across America
Just 16 years after Colonel Waring,
Half of all cities have waste collection.
And it's not just waste.
By 1907, every large city in the nation has sewers.
By 1909, there are 42,040 miles of sewers in America
The battle against filth, crime and poverty has begun.
But one of the city's greatest innovations is still in its infancy
One man will change the urban landscape forever.
Menlo Park, New Jersey, 1879.
Thomas Edison: inventor, entrepreneur, showman
He was taken out of school as a boy
but that won't stop him from becoming synonymous.
With inventions that define the modern era
He pushes his team hard, 24/7.
In one of the world's first R&D labs
It will generate more than 1,000 patents.
America still lights the night
In the dangers flick candles, gas and kerosene
Edison thinks he has a better idea
If he can get a filament to burn slowly in a vacuum
The electric light bulb. Platinum.
Edison locks himself in his lab, doesn't sleep for days
The stakes are high.
His backers have sunk 130,000 dollars into his research,
Millions in today's money.
He claimed to have gone through 6000 materials from the plant world alone in his search for the perfect filament
Turn on the lamp, Jack.
Spruce. Beard. Fish line. Thread. Teak.Boxwood. Celluloid, parchment.
Then something extraordinary happens. Cardboard.
A piece of carbonized cardboard burns for 300 hours.
It's going to change the way people live forever
What Edison does is nothing less than to banish the darkness.
Now think of meaning of that
Think of what that means to daily life
New Year's Eve 1879.
Edison shows off his new invention
Thousands of people flock to his lab
To see the future take shape
The Pennsylvania Railroad arranges special trains
To accommodate the crowds.
When Thomas Edison invented that light bulb, that electric light bulb,
What a-- how magical that must have been
You know, to sit there and just all of a sudden,
Without a match, without kerosene or gas, and just flip a switch and...
Light. In just 2 years, Edison builds more than 5,000 power plants,
Generating electricity for cities like
New York, Boston, Chicago, Detroit,
St. Louis and New Orleans.
Over the next 5 years, he builds over 127,000 more
By 1902, 18 million bulbs in use.
The impact is massive.
Sports, entertainment, factories, stores,
All can now operate at night
And as electricity comes to the cities
More and more people arrive with it
By 1900, nearly 4 million women are working in US cities
In just 40 years, that figure has more than quadrupled
urban factories are pounding out
75% of all consumer products in the US
Places like this, modern steel-frame buildings
Equipped with all the latest technology
Otis electric elevators, Bell telephones, Singer sewing machines.
But packing so many people into tall buildings
Is a disaster waiting to happen
The United States is hurtling into the modern age
Symbolized by megacities rising up all across the continent.
By 1909 Americans are spending nearly 23 Billion dollars a year
On ready-made clothes
This factory is producing 12,000 garments a week.
Known as shirtwaists, they're the latest fashion for the working woman
New York City, March 25, 1911. 4:45 PM.
The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, 8th floor.
260 girls work here, most of them teenagers.
Someone-- we don't know who--
Tosses a match, or maybe a cigarette into the scrap bin
Eva Harris, a seamstress, smells burning. Fire.
There's a fire, Mr. Bernstein
Production manager Samuel Bernstein grabs one of the three fire pails...
But the fire is already spreading
There's a mad dash for the exit, but it is too narrow.
Only one at a time can pass through
It's been designed that way so their bags can be checked for stolen fabric
There's a fire hose...But it's not working. No water!
The only way to warn the floors above is through the switchboard 2 floors up, on the 10th floor
Hello, switchboard? 10th floor. Fire, there's fire.
Put me through to the 9th floor!
She drops the phone and runs to get help
The message never reaches the 9th floor.
Races up the main stairs to help the 160 workers trapped there
But blocking the front door, there's a barrel of motor oil
On the 9th floor, flames already shooting through the walls and windows
The girls on 9 rush to the fire escape, but it's locked
Only 2 escape routes are left on the 9th floor
The elevator and the metal fire escape
Kate Weiner makes it to the elevator door
But she's lost her sister
"Everyone was knocking and crying for the elevator comes up.
"Suddenly the elevator came and the girls rushed in"
"I was searching for my sister, Rose, but I couldn't find her"
"The flames were coming toward me and I was being left behind"
"I felt the elevator was leaving the 9th floor for the last time"
She's the last person to get to the last elevator
More than 100 girls are left behind to die
The only escape route left
Is the metal fire escape but it collapses.
Firemen arrived with the biggest ladder in New York City
But it's 30 feet too short. 4:58 PM.
The girls trapped on the 9th floor are out of options,
In desperation... they jump 5.15 PM.
The entire blaze is over in less than half an hour
146 people die in the Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire
There's trial, but the owners walk free
It remains the deadliest workplace disaster in New York City history
Until September 11, 2001.
But some good does come out of it
This dramatic tragedy sparks a wave of reform,
So you begin to get new restrictions and a new conversation about what to do
To prevent this kind of tragedy from happening
But it did not stop, of course, that tragedy itself
Unions force management to take responsibility
For the lives of their workers.
The Life Safety Code now used in all 50 States
Is a direct result of this fire
Its why doors now open outwards in public buildings,
Why automatic sprinkler systems or multiple exits are now the law
The US and the modern city grew up together
Typically new, enormous and fast-paced,
The megacity is one of America's great inventions