Facts on Saturn




Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun and the second largest in the solar system,after Jupiter.It is a gas planet with a average radius about nine times that of earth.Saturn is the root of the Engl







ish word ``Saturday. Saturn's beautiful rings,visible with a expensive telescope,to make it a favorite in the night.


Saturn

Saturn in natural color approaching equinox, photographed by Cassini in July 2008. The dot in the bottom left corner is Titan.


Orbital characteristics[5]


Aphelion

1,514.50 million km (10.1238 AU)

Perihelion

1,352.55 million km (9.0412 AU)

Semi-major axis

1,433.53 million km (9.5826 AU)

Eccentricity

0.0565

Orbital period

Synodic period

378.09 days

Average orbital speed

9.68 km/s (6.01 mi/s)

Mean anomaly

317.020°[3]

Inclination

Longitude of ascending node

113.665°

Argument of perihelion

339.392°[3]

Known satellites

62 with formal designations; innumerable additional moonlets.[5]

Physical characteristics[5]

Mean radius

58,232 km (36,184 mi)[a]

Equatorialradius

  • 60,268 km (37,449 mi)[a]
  • 9.449 Earths

Polar radius

  • 54,364 km (33,780 mi)[a]
  • 8.552 Earths

Flattening

0.09796

Surface area

  • 4.27×1010 km2 (1.65×1010 sq mi)[6][a]
  • 83.703 Earths

Volume

  • 8.2713×1014 km3(1.9844×1014 cu mi)[a]
  • 763.59 Earths

Mass

  • 5.6834×1026 kg (1.2530×1027 lb)
  • 95.159 Earths

Mean density

0.687 g/cm3 (0.0248 lb/cu in)[b] (less than water)

Surface gravity

Moment of inertia factor

0.210 I/MR2 estimate

Escape velocity

35.5 km/s (22.1 mi/s)[a]

Sidereal rotation period

10.55 hours[7]

(10 hr 33 min)

Equatorial rotation velocity

9.87 km/s (6.13 mi/s; 35,500 km/h)[a]

Axial tilt

26.73° (to orbit)

North pole right ascension

40.589°; 2h 42m 21s

North pole declination

83.537°

Albedo

Surface temp.minmeanmax1 bar

134 K (−139 °C)


84 K (−189 °C)

Apparent magnitude

+1.47 to −0.24[8]

Angular diameter

14.5″ to 20.1″ (excludes rings)

Atmosphere[5]

Surface pressure

140 kPa[9]

Scale height

59.5 km (37.0 mi)

Composition by volume

by volume:

96.3%±2.4%

hydrogen (H

2)

3.25%±2.4%

helium (He)

0.45%±0.2%

methane (CH

4)

0.0125%±0.0075%

ammonia (NH

3)

0.0110%±0.0058%

hydrogen deuteride (HD)

0.0007%±0.00015%

ethane (C

2H

6)

Ices:

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth.[10][11] It has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, but with its larger volume Saturn is over 95 times more massive.[12][13][14] Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture; its astronomical symbol (♄) represents the god's sickle.

Saturn's interior is probably composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock (silicon and oxygen compounds). This core is surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium, and finally a gaseous outer layer. Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. Electrical current within the metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic field, which is weaker than Earth's, but has a magnetic moment 580 times that of Earth due to Saturn's larger size. Saturn's magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiter's.[15] The outer atmosphere is generally bland and lacking in contrast, although long-lived features can appear. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 km/h (1,100 mph; 500 m/s), higher than on Jupiter, but not as high as those on Neptune.[16]

The planet's most famous feature is its prominent ring system that is composed mostly of ice particles, with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust. At least 62 moons[17] are known to orbit Saturn, of which 53 are officially named. This does not include the hundreds of moonlets in the rings. Titan, Saturn's largest moon, and the second-largest in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercury, although less massive, and is the only moon in the Solar System to have a substantial atmosphere..




Venus

Venus is the second planet from the sun and is the second brightest object in the knight sky after the moon.Named after the roman goddess of love and beauty,Venus is the second largest terrestrial planet and is sometimes referred to as the earths sister planet due to their similar size and mass. The SURFACE of the planet is obscured by an opaque layer of clouds made up of sulphuric acid. The diameter of Venus is 12,104km. The temperature on Venus is 462 degrees Celsius.The orbit distance is 108,209,475km. Venus has no moons. To orbit Venus it takes 225 days was first recorded 17th century BC.