Mr. Roderick's Biology Web page


Air Content Elaboration: Intro to BiologyCharacteristics of life

- Cells as a system...related parts working together- Biology defined...- the characteristics of life...respond to your environment(homeostasis), use/make energy in the form of ATP, pass on traits (DNA), all life is made of one or more cells- The diversity of life/BIODIVERSITY- Unifying themes in biology...Survival(interactions and relationships)/systems/structure dictates function/Homeostasis/Evolution- Tools for biologists- ethical concerns- Lab safety-Scientific method/process...hypothesis/experiment/observations/analysis/conclusions/repeat for validity- exp Design: experimental groups/control groups...indep variables and dependent variables...constants- tech and math's to improve investigations- hypothesis-->a theory--> a law- revisions...real world applications(GMO's) (DNA)(Biomechanical engineering)

August 2019-20 School Year


Fri/17.... Ch1 Intro to Biology... Biology= study of life...in all its forms/BIODIVERSITY/BIOSPHERE
Mon/19...review from friday....Characteristics of life...what is life?Tue/20.... Quiz #1.... Themes in Biology 1. Survival 2. systems 3. structure and functionWed/21... 4. homeostasis 5. Evolution Evolution ties in unity and diversity at the same time//Common AncestorThui/22... Scientific method: Biology as a science...Hypothesis/method/Data (observations" 1. qualitative and qualitative), analysis/conclusion Indeoendent variable: what is manipulated or changed Dependent Variable: What is being measured or is affected by the independent variablesFri/23... Review Sci method... Dependent Variable: WKSHT: finding the dep and ind variables

Mon/26.... Review variables/sci thinking and knowing GROUPS: experimental and controlTue/27... Quiz 2: variables and groups...wksht on variables/constants and groupsWed/28....go over wksht Quiz 3: parts of experiments theory vs lawThur/29... Wksht on ch1...what is an experiment..form hypothesis/experiment/observe/analysis/conclusionFri/30 Go over wksht...review ch1 material

Sept

Mon/2....NO SchoolTue/3...CH 1 Exam Scientific method (Exam 1)Wed/4... Go over Ch1 ExamThur/5... Lab safety/guidelines and expectations Quiz on lab safety: Lab: making good observationsFri/6.... Lab write up L1.....(Format). Due at end of period


Independent Variables can change...they affect the Dependent Variable (plant growth) Besides water and fertilizer...what other variables affect plant growth?


Roughly speaking, independent variables represent function inputs, these would be found on the x-axis. Things like time, amount of water etc., etc...Dependent variables represent function outputs and would fall on the y-axis Things like number of leaves or plant height.

Air Content Elaboration: Chemistry Review

- The atom...particles that make up the atom- periodic chart- elements- compounds- ions and isotopes- radiometric dating- bonding...covalent and ionic bonds- parts of a chem reaction...reactants and products- chemical reactions-energy changes in a chemical reaction- Enzymes and their influence on chemical reactions-Water and pH


Mon/9.. PRE-TEST: The Atom/Chem .....The Atom/particles/charge...elements/compounds Ions and isotopes...when atoms gain or lose electrons or neutrons!Tue/10... Cation and Anions...Stability of an atom (why atoms lose/gain electrons) 2 rules for stability... the periodic chart...Atomic number and atomic mass...valance electrons...Chemical formula.chemical symbols and subscriptsWed/11...QUIZ: Atoms Bonding:ionic and covalentThur/12... review bonding: metals are electron donors and non-metals are electron acceptors ...Chemical Reactions: reactants and products...evidence of a chem reaction Fri/13... Wksht on atom/elements/comp and equations due
Mon/16...Return wksht/go over Quiz on Tue! Chemical reactions: Rates of reaction/activation energy...exothermic curve/endothermic curve (see below)Tue/17... Chem formula/chemical symbols/chemical equations cont,....Wed/18... Bonds...covalent and ionicThur/19... Review worksheet on atomsFri/20... NO SCHOOL

Mon/23... QUIZ: atoms/elements and compounds... Equations...evidence if a chem reactionTue.24.... Finish equations. Demonstrate a chem reaction:...Activation Energy....exothermic and endothermic reactions...Graphs of bothWed/25...Quiz 7... activation energy curves...enzymes...need to lower activation energyThur/26... Parts of an enzyme...naming enzymes..denaturing enzymesFacts about enzymes:1. they are biological catalyst...they control the rate of reactions by lowering the activation Energy2. they do not take place in the chem reaction..they are neither part of the reactant or the products thereforethey cannot be used up3. Enzymes are proteins4. They are named after the reaction they influence Ex: oxidation is controlled by the enzyme Oxidase the name of enzymes usually end is ASEFri/27... Review Ch2...Ch2 Exam monday
Mon/30... Ch 2 Exam...Compounds/elements and atoms

OCTOBER

To view review below...put pointer on pic and scroll with your mouse wheel.
Basic Chemistry Review.pptx

October

Tue/1... Water and Solutions... Polarity of water..Properties of water....cohesion/adhesion...surface tension and capillary action Wed/2....FA: overhead questions: 1. what property of water allows for capillary action 2. What property allows insects to walk on water water cont,..Thur/3... Wksht on waterFri/4...Hydrogen bonds----> All properties of water
Mon/7... Review water... Microscope partsTue/8... Lab: Xylem...how plants use capillary action to draw water up stemsWed/9...Lab write up
waterproperties solutions and pH.ppt
Thur/10...properties cont... COHESION: similar molecules are attracted to ea other ---> leads to surface tension...insects walk on water ADHESION: leads to capillary actionFri/11...High heat capacity: water can absorb ALOT or energy without increasing its own temp. High heat of vaporization: it takes very little heat to evaporate 1 gram of waterAcids and bases: intro worksheet


Mon/14... Review properties of water...go over pH worksheetTue/15... pH acid base..hydrogen and hydroxide/pH scaleWed/16...FA: overhead questions: 1. what property of water allows for capillary action 2. What property allows insects to walk on water water cont,...pH INDICATORS...how to measure it....pH scale Thur/17...Exam: Water and pHFri/18... Make ups!! All 1st quarter work is due!!
Mon/21... Macro Molecules Proteins/Carbs/Fats/Nucleic acids...what are polymers? Monomers peptides = amino acids structure of amino acids glycine, alanine...how do we know these are amino acids? 20 diff amino acids for humans... hydrogen bonds--> folding --> function of proteins
Tue/22...(FA)DRAW A Amino acid draw two and identify the peptide bond! many folds...complex and simple proteins can fold and un-fold...molecular chaperones try to fix..if not...RECYCLE!! Amino acids DENATURE = unfolded...BROKEN Hydrogen bonds! which are weak by the way Protein functions:1. Catalyst....= enzymes- speed up chem reactions2. communication: protein protein interactions...a protein can be activated or inactivated by another protein Protein channels and surface proteins3. Transportation...Hemoglobin transports oxygen4. Protection...IMMUNITY...Antibodies are proteins called Immunoglobulins
Protein folds: Functional proteins--> GLOBULAR...hemoglobin/immunoglobulins Structural proteins---> More linear...elastin and collagenWed/23.. Review proteins...Do WKSHT (FA)Thur/24... QUIZ: Proteins...Strart Carbohydrates/sugars...also called Saccharides...mono, Di, Tri and Polysaccharides Glucose and Fructose.....Sucrose .....Ribose...Isomers/ pentoseFri.25...C6 H12 O6 Where do carbs come from? Plants store glucose...we eat them


  • A single Peptide (amino acid)
  • The Carboxyl group is also known as an acid group
  • With H in the R position...this is Glycine!






This is a tri peptide...3 amino acids held together by Peptide bonds!


Mon/28.... lipids (fats)..construction of a Fat... 3 carbon head called a Glycerol and 3 fatty acid tails...Draw a Triglyceride///saturated and unsaturated fatsTue/29... Review fats so far... Structure of fats.....Fn of fats in the body... 1.Energy storage 2. membranes of cells 3. Structure in bile, Vit D and steroid hormonesWed/30... Phospholipids and cholesterolThur/31... Wksheet: in class homework if not done

NOVEMBER
Fri/1... Go over worksheet..Quiz on lipids
Mon/4... Nucleic acids...DNA and RNA... uses in the bodyTue/5... The nucleotide...3 parts A phosphate, a sugar (Ribose) and a nitrogen base Worksheet on Nucleic acidWed/6... RNA construction/ mRNA...single strand of nucleotides/ DNA a double strandThur/7... Nitrogen bases..guanine cytosine thymine and adenine...bonding properties Wksheet on making complementary strands/ 5' (five prime) 3' (three prime) and why they are called such..REVIEW FATS!! Test tomorrowFri/8... Macro-molecules Test
Mon/11... Catalase enzyme lab

Hydrogen bonds maintain protein folds!

However, hydrogen bonds can be broken by extreme heat and pH!!!

The Denaturing of a protein as seen below and to the left.

What bonds are broken??

Air: Content Elaboration: Cells


- Cell types: evolutionary progression from pro-karyotic to eu-karyotic- cells evolved to include a nucleus, organelles...multicellular organisms- cell organelles and their function related to protein synthesis- cell membranes control transportation, identification and communication passive transport and active transport/osmosis- composition of cells- Cell theory




Tue/12... Go over rules hand out materials...announcementsWed/13...Rules/hand-out/...announcementsThur/14...Ch 3 The Cell... Cell theory/Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cellsFri/15... Review/ Char's of Pro and Eukaryotic cells QUIZ Q1 Pro vs Eu
Mon/18... Parts of the cell...hand-out:cell diagram...structure and functionTue/19... Quiz: cell parts... Cell organell functions ...Cell MembraneWed/20... Review material Video on Cell TypesThur/21... Phospholipid Bilayer construction Video...Quiz 3 organell functions REVIEW FOR TEST Fri/22.... Cell exam part I
THANKSGIVING BREAK Mon25-Dec 2


Gen description of an animal cell and Plant Cells. Take note of functions and difference between animal and plant cells.

The Cell Membrane: Note the structure of phospholipids in a Bilayer. Why is it called a fluid mosaic bilayer? Can other substances move freely among the phospholipids?

An Animal Cell


Untitled document

Cell Review!!!

scroll down for all sections

DECEMBER

Mon/2...chromebook access to Bio webpage/ membrane proteinsTue/3... Cellular transport: Passive and active...passive requires no energy..there are 3 types of passive transport 1) Simple Diffusion... uses a concentration gradient (move from hi conc to low) if Na is highly concentrated out of the cell, it will move into the cell if a channel opens up... Particles will stop moving when there are equal parts on both sides of the membrane...called reaching EQUILIBRIUM. At which point...there is no more driving force
(FA): determine the direction of diffusion in 3 pics
Wed/4... Review passive active transport... review Simple Diffusion(FA)from yesterday 2) Facilitated Diffusion...uses a carrier protein...some things cannot enter thru the bilayer and need help...carrier proteins can change shape and bind substances to be brought into the cell. Glucose is an example./// Show video reviewing simple diffusion and facilitated diffusionThur/5...review passive transport; 1) Simple Diffusion 2) Facilitated Diffusion....Fri/6...Go over what is a solute and a solvent...Introduce Osmosis...defined; is the movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane...water moves towards the higher concentrations of solute in order to dilute.(this is different from how particles move in simple diffusion).
Mon/9... Osmosis Continued...Examples for students to see which direction water will go/ Cells in differing solute concentrations (hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic). View Video: "Membrane transport in cells" For review and Formative assessment///see below!


Mon/3...Tue/4... Review Passive Transport..ACTIVE TRANSPORT: moving substance AGAINST their concentration Gradients...Requires ENERGY in the form of also requires PUMPS that pump sub's in/out of the cell against their conc. grad.'s this is different from channels.Hand-out wksht on cell transport HW...start in class, due tomorrow!! (FA)Wed/5... go over HW... differentiate between the 2 types of active transport 1) primary active and 2) secondary active...primary uses atp-ase enzymes to make ATP over and over while secondary pumps use ATP 'till it is gone and later gets resupplied. QUIZ?
Thur/6... Review transport...(FA) Continue Active transport/antiport and symport (co transport,coupled transport) Na/K pump Na and Glucose Fri/7...Quiz on transport (Q4).... Review osmosis and pumps
Mon/10... Review Quiz...Review Cell Transport...go over Vesicular Transport: Exocytosis and Endocytosis (out of cell and into the cell)... Homeostasis: Cell waterTue/11... Cell Jeopardy game... A Review of the cell!!Wed/12... Lab safety..hand outs...quiz on safety and rulesThur/13...Lab: Alkaseltzer in water....observational...how to do a lab...a lab write up and make scientific observationsFri/14...finish lab write-up...do review of cell theory and parts of cell...cell membrane
Mon/17... EXAM: The Cell Part 1...includes...cell theory/prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells/cell parts and functions
CELL TRANSPORT.ppt

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Tue/18... EXAM: The Cell Part II Cell membrane/cell transportWed/19... Ch1...Biology in the 21st century...Biology defined...the study of lifeThur/20... Biodiversity...why are living things so different/diff environments/adaptations to diff environments...ecosystems(made up of living and non-living things) EVOLUTION--> creates BiodiversityFri/21... Bio--> study of life...WHATS LIFE??? 5 Characteristics of life 1. an organism has to be able to respond to its environment (Homeostasis)2. must use energy in the form of ATP/Plants use Photosynthesis(light -->ATP...Animals use Cellular Respiration(glucose-->ATP)3. Pass on traits(Heredity) using DNA 4. Show growth and Development: plants start as seeds-->plants that develop...animals start as fert egg-->zygote-->embryo-->infant to an adult 5. and all living things are made up of 1 or more CELLS
Mon/24....Quiz: Char of life...Tue/25... Scientific process/thinking...Experimental design: What is an experiment-->collecting data/ what do you observe? -->Variables Dependent and Independent variables: Indep. Var. is manipulated or changed and Dependent Var...is what's measured and it is affected by the Indep. Variable See video below for more understanding:
Wed/26.... LAB: Simple Diffusion labThur/27... Lab write up due! Work on labs...Fri/28... Experimental groups: Experimental and control groups HW: Wksht on exp design...vocab: id...ind var/dep var/cont gp/exp gp
OCTOBER

Air Content Elaboration: Intro to BiologyCharacteristics of life

- Cells as a system...related parts working together- Biology defined...- the characteristics of life...respond to your environment(homeostasis), use/make energy in the form of ATP, pass on traits (DNA), all life is made of one or more cells- The diversity of life/BIODIVERSITY- Unifying themes in biology...Survival(interactions and relationships)/systems/structure dictates function/Homeostasis/Evolution- Tools for biologists- ethical concerns- Lab safety-Scientific method/process...hypothesis/experiment/observations/analysis/conclusions/repeat for validity- exp Design: experimental groups/control groups...indep variables and dependent variables...constants- tech and math's to improve investigations- hypothesis-->a theory--> a law- revisions...real world applications(GMO's) (DNA)(Biomechanical engineering)
Mon/1... Quiz: Sci Method...variables and groups...experimental design Form Assessment Tools of Biologists....Microscopes from single lens to electronic...view Elect microscopic images VIDEOTue/2... Tools cont, Imaging modalities to genetic engineering Review for Ch1 ExamWed/3... Ch1 ExamThur/4... make up Exam... What is life...How did it Evolve? Movie...what does it take to say something is aliveFri/5... movie cont,... paper
Mon/8... No SchoolTue/9... LAB: What are the parts of a microscope/their functions/ How to focus a microscope/ Relationship between magnification and Field of ViewWed/10 LAB: Viewing vascular plant tissue... Lab write upThur/11... All write ups dueFri/12... Intro Ch2 Chemistry Review (see Air content elaboration below) View ppts Give: Pretest on atomic structure


Electron microscopy

Air Content Elaboration: Chemistry Review

- The atom...particles that make up the atom- periodic chart- elements- compounds- ions and isotopes- radiometric dating- bonding...covalent and ionic bonds- parts of a chem reaction...reactants and products- chemical reactions-energy changes in a chemical reaction- Enzymes and their influence on chemical reactions-Water and pH

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Chem review II.ppt
Mon/15... PRE-TEST: The Atom/Chem .....The Atom/particles/charge...elements/compounds Ions and isotopes...when atoms gain or lose electrons or neutrons!Tue/16... Cation and Anions...Stability of an atom (why atoms lose/gain electrons) 2 rules for stability... the periodic chart...Atomic number and atomic mass...valance electrons...Chemical formula.chemical symbols and subscriptsWed/17...QUIZ: Atoms Bonding:ionic and covalentThur/2518... review bonding: metals are electron donors and non-metals are electron acceptors ...Chemical Reactions: reactants and products...evidence of a chem reaction Fri/19... Wksht on atom/elements/comp and equations due
Mon/22...Return wksht/go over Quiz on Tue! Chemical reactions: Rates of reaction/activation energy...exothermic curve/endothermic curve (see below)

Notice products...they are either lower in energy(means they lost energy) which shows an exothermic reaction...

...or the product are higher in energy(gain energy) or Endothermic reaction

Tue/23...Quiz on atoms/elements/compounds: video on how enzymes work Facts about enzymes: 1. they are biological catalyst...they control the rate of reactions by lowering the activation Energy 2. they do not take place in the chem reaction..they are neither part of the reactant or the products therefore they cannot be used up 3. Enzymes are proteins 4. They are named after the reaction they influence Ex: oxidation is controlled by the enzyme Oxidase the name of enzymes usually end is ASEWed/24... Video on enzymes part II FA: Enzyme questionsThur/25...wksht on enzymes...review FACTS ON ENZYMES FA:Fri/26...QUIZ: Enzymes

Video shows:

  • enzymatic substrate binding/ active site
  • product formation
  • specific enzyme: Catalase
  • optimal pH and Temp curves


Video shows:

  • graphing of activation energy curves
  • substrate binding with better pics of actual proteins
Mon/29... Water..Polarity of waterTue/30... Properties of water...cohesion/adhesion...surface tension and capillary actionWed/31...FA: overhead questions: 1. what property of water allows for capillary action 2. What property allows insects to walk on water water cont,...pH what is pH...how to measure it....pH scale H.O. wksht on water and pH

November


Thur/1... FA: view worksheet....go over wkshtFri.2... Review for Ch2 Test on Monday

Mon/5... Ch2 Exam Atoms/elements/compounds/enzymes/water and pHTue/6... Make up exams...Lab: Enzyme action...write upWed/7... Lab write ups due... Lab: denaturing an enzymeThur/8... lab write up in classFri/9... protein vocabulary...in class p.61 do 2.3 vocabulary
Mon/12... Macro Molecules Proteins/Carbs/Fats/Nucleic acids...what are polymers? Monomers peptides = amino acids structure of amino acids glycine, alanine...how do we know these are amino acids? 20 diff amino acids for humans... hydrogen bonds--> folding --> function of proteins
Tue/13...(FA)DRAW A Amino acid draw two and identify the peptide bond! many folds...complex and simple proteins can fold and un-fold...molecular chaperones try to fix..if not...RECYCLE!! Amino acids DENATURE = unfolded...BROKEN Hydrogen bonds! which are weak by the way Protein functions:1. Catalyst....= enzymes- speed up chem reactions2. communication: protein protein interactions...a protein can be activated or inactivated by another protein Protein channels and surface proteins3. Transportation...Hemoglobin transports oxygen4. Protection...IMMUNITY...Antibodies are proteins called Immunoglobulins
Protein folds: Functional proteins--> GLOBULAR...hemoglobin/immunoglobulins Structural proteins---> More linear...elastin and collagenWed/14... Review proteins...Do WKSHT (FA)


An amino Acid

An Amino Group to the left

An acid group(carboxyl group) to the right...hence, Amino Acid

Note: There are 20 different R groups...why?



Two amino acids bonded together by a peptide bond makes---> A DIPEPTIDE

What do three amino acids make???

three peptides = tri-peptide

How many peptide bonds are there?

Thur/15... Review worksheet...Quiz: Proteins Carbohydrates (saccharides) sugars/ Need for carbs/ Glucose--> ATP Glucose structure and fructoseFri/16... FA: What are carbs? Why do we need them? Mono,di, and tri saccharides / Polysaccharides...Ribose...Isomers/ pentose
Mon/19... Review carbs: Glucose + fructose--> sucrose / polymer and monomer's/Ribose(RNA, DNA) C6H12O6 Where do carbs come from? Plants Plants store glucose...we eat them Tue/20... Complex Carbohydrates/Humans store glucose in the form of glycogen..in liver/muscles Complex carbs: Cellulose...in plants Chitin in insects and shell fish...Carbohydrate worksheetWed/21- Fri/23 ... No School Thanksgiving



Mon/26... Review Carb Wksht: Quiz on Carbs/ Introduce Fats: Glycerol head and three fatty acids/ fatty acids = long chains of hydro-carbons/ saturated or unsaturatedTue/27.... Fats cont.,..Types of fats in the human body = 3 types....1) triGlycerides 2) phospholipids 3) cholesterol (sterol molecules) Describe and characteristics of Neutral fats: saturated/unsaturated and poly-unsaturated...describe each Fats wksht HW start in class DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS/HydrolysisWed/28... 2ed Quiz on Fats: pwer point on Fats...emph those points students were weak on from Quizzes!Thur/29... Nucleic Acids (DNA/RNA)... Fri/30....Do 2 worksheets on nucleic acids and lipids/nucleic acids(FA)

DECEMBER


Mon/3... Go over nucleic acids... Quiz on nucleic acidsTue/4... Lipid Quiz CELL ENERGY: Photosynthesis and cellular energy... background/equation...the productsWed/5... Where does photosynthesis take place? Leaf...chloroplasts...thylakoids...membrane of thylakoidsThur/6... Light reaction of photosynthesis...step by step process to make ATP...Review for Fri/7... Macromolecule Exam!! (Proteins/carbs/fats and nucleic acids)
Mon/10...light reaction wksht...Calvin CycleTue/11... Quiz calvin cycle... Calvin cycle drawingWed/12... Test on PhotosynthesisThur/13... make upsFri/14... Review for Sem Final
Wed/9...The products of The Kreb Cycle produces (for 1 pyruvic acid) QUIZ Q1 Cell respiration/glycolysis 1. 3 Carbons...to get rid of these, carbon is bonded to oxygen---> 3 CO2 2. 6 Hydrogens 3. 1 ATP Be aware if the question is 1 PA or 1 Glucose molecule produces...etc, etc... The ETC/ATP synthase channel...is the 3rd process of CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Thur/10...Mitosis and somatic cells...exact duplicates...asexual reproductionFri/11... Cell cycle and check points

Mon/14...cyclins cyto kenisis the phases of mitosisTue/15... prophase... nuc disappears...chromatin-->chromosomes spindle apparatus metaphase...chromosomes line up on equatorWed/16... Anaphase...chromosomes get pulled apart Telophase....chromosomes reach poles/nucleus re-appears and spindle app goes awayThur/17....mitosis wkshtFri/18.... go over wksht QUIZ mitosis cycto kenisis Cell cycle and mitosis test on wed!! Mon/21 no schoolTue/22...review for examWed/23... Cell cycle and mitosis testThur/24... Meiosis: genetic variationFri/25... somatic cells and sex cells (gametes).. asexual reproduction...duplicates...sexual rep--> genetic variation mitosis---copie dna meiosis--> scrambles genes found in dna// Chromosomes parts of and genes found on chromosomes Mon/28...mitosis is Asexual Rep/goal= 1. make identical offspring (cells) 2. cells? Somatic cells...cells of the body 3. # of chromosomes= 46 4. one round of p,m,a,and telophase Result: mother cell w/46 produces daughter cell w/46 same chromosomes! Meiosis: 1. Sexual reproduction 2. goal is to scramble genes (different offspring) 3. cells: sex cells (gametes) sperm and ovum 4. Chromosomes REDUCED 46--> 23 5. two rounds of P,M,A and telophase I and II Note: Meiosis has been called reduction division or Haploid division Tue/29... Quiz: Meiosis.......Chromosome and genes(segments of DNA... homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids//crossing over and synapsis Fertilization: sperm-23 chromosomes will join an egg with 23 chromosomes ---> Zygote with 46 chromosomes Wed/30... no school coldThur/31... no school snow FEBUARY Fri/1... no school snow Mon/4... Review.... Meiosis I the process to form GAMETES...sex cells: Sperm and an ovum both with only 23 chromosomes Meiosis known as reduction division...Haploid division WHY?? reducing 46 chrom's to 23 in sperm and egg Goal: scramble genes and reduce # of chromosomesTue/5... somatic cells are 2x the number of sex cells in chromosomes..so sex cells are n=23 (or 23 chromosomes) or 1/2 or we say Haploid somatic cells are 2n = 46 chromosomes Remember: Somatic cells are Diploid cells (2n) and have 46 chromosomes and undergo asexual reproduction to make identical cells= MITOSIS Sex cells are........Haploid cells(1n) and have 23 chromosomes and undergo sexual reproduction to scramble genes to get different offspring Meiosis Wed/6...EXam: Cell Reproduction: Meiosis Thur/7...Mendelian Genetics: Inheritance//Pea plants...self and cross pollination// cross ---> genetic variation...true breeds and hybrids...traits of pea plants Mendel's Experiment: Green and Yellow seeds to pea plants...P1 generation F1 generation(Filial or son) f2 generation Dominant/recessive gene mendel called alleles... Dominant genes get EXPRESSED while recessive genes are MASKED. Fri/8...Alleles...a form of a single gene...Genes occur in pairs on chromosomes/// Genotype: TT , Tt, tt (tall) Cap letters = Dominant lower case= recessive genes Phenotype: How you look ... tall or short RULE: The dominant gene gives you your phenotype! If your genotype is TT --> you will be tall , Tt --> your tall, even if you do have a t short gene, the dominant gene is EXPRESSED or we say shows up. tt --> your short, there are no Tall genes at allSo there are just 3 GENOTYPES: Homozygous Dominant TT---- Homozygous Recessive tt ---and Heterozygous Tt Mon/11... Worksheet: in class... Law of Segregation, Punnett Squares... to determine possible phenotypes. Mono-hybrid-cross---> deals with one trait cross--> Di-hybrid cross deals with two traits %'s and ratios when parents are heterozygous for that trait (Tall)

PHENOTYPE %'s

Here with heterozygous parents, the offspring shows that there is a 75% offspring will be T tall

There is a 25% chance they will be short. (tt 2 recessive genes)

Phenotype Ratio: Tall to Short is 3:1

Genotype Ratio:

Homozygous Dominant : Heterozygous : Homozygous recessive

is... 1:2:1

Tue/12... Quiz: heredity Do vocab sheet in classWed/13... Vocab Quiz... Review Monohybrid crosses//Di-hybrid crosses//Genetic variation: what genotype favors genetic variation?? In Evolution what genes are removed or downplayed? Ratio of di-hybrid-crosses: 9:3:3:1 why are there 2 values for heterozygous? What genotype is less expressed in either mono or Di hybrids
Thur/14...Do hybrids in class...examples of both.///Law of Independent assortment..factor that affectFri/15... Gene Linkage and Polyploidy: Gene Recombination: Crossing-over and Independent assortment
Mon/18... No SchThur/14...Do hybrids in class...examples of both.///Law of Independent assortment..factor that affectFri/15... Gene Linkage and Polyploidy: Gene Recombination: Crossing-over and Independent assortment

Mon/18 ...No School
Tue/19... Calculate various Independent assortment possibilities... 2 to n power where n= number of chromosome pairs...pea plants have 7 chromosomal pairs...calc possible chromosomal combination of genes 2 to the 7th power is 128 .... This only applies to males!! Females would be= 128 so,... 128x128= 16,384 For Humans... 2 to 23 power time 2 to the 23 power = over 70 trillion... what results in so many combinations? GENETIC VARIETY! Linked genes... are found closer together and therefore do not segregate independently...they exhibit lower cross-over frequency. Genes far away exhibit higher cross-over frequency. Do Chart...determine which genes are close together and which are furthest apart. What affect do linked genes have on independent assortment or the law of segregation? Poly-ploidy in animals vs plants... Normal diploid 2n....plants can be 3n...4n...5n... Advantages and disadvantage....GMO's How do we induce polyploidy seeds? Colchicine ---> interupt cell division so that all chromosomes stay in one cell ...one gamete ends up with extra chromosomes
Wed/21... continue from aboveThur/22.....Lab: Chromosome karyotypingFri/23.. Lab continued... Do lab write up/karyotype/and discussion questions! Heredity wksht HW
Mon/24... Review Mendel Genetics.... Exam on Tue..hand back lab write up's/collec/grade heredity wkshtTue/25... Exam 4: Mendelian Genetics
Wed/26... Ch7 Chromosomes and Complex patterns of heredity... Autosomes vs Sex chromosomes (pairs 1-22 vs pair 23), Dosage...females have a double dose of gene products--> XX While males have a single dose --> Xy since they have only one X sex chromosome....X-Chromosome inactivation and Barr bodies Female Calico and male Calico cats...whats the difference??? Males: why X chrom is so LARGE at pair 23... Why do males sex linked genes express even recessive alleles

There is a region(SRY gene) known as the sex determining region on the Y chromosome.

Females have a similar region(SRY gene) only on the X chromosome.

one of the two X chromosomes in each cell inactivates by supercoiling into a structure known as a Barr Body This irreversible process is known as Lyonization .

Genes controlling fur color is located on the X chromosome of females... The gene has two versions, or alleles. One form of the gene codes for orange fur (XB), and the other form codes for black fur (Xb) her coat will be a patchwork of orange and black, a condition known as tortoiseshell.

Male color expression is straightforward. Because only one allele exists for the gene in each cell, it will be expressed. And all males have only B or only b. There are no heterozygotes, because the Y does not carry the allele.

Two males far left: Carry either orange or black...not both

Next,depending on which x chromosome is inactivated..you get black or orange but heterozygous female can produce patchwork!

Thur/27... Non disjunction of chromosomes: when chromosomes are not pulled apart properly results: one cell may have more chromosomes and another too few....karyotypes of non dis J chromosomal diseases
Fri/28... Turners syndrome..Female; Klinefelter syndrome male trisomy and monasomy...Down syndrome ...Lab: non dis junction chromosome lab
MARCH
Mon/9... Complex patterns of heredity... 1. Incomplete Dominance 2. Co- Dominance 3. Mult alleles (blood type) 4. Epistasis.....Pedigree map nomenclature
Tue/10... Explanation of antigens and blood types...Genotype to phenotype...reading pedigree maps by doing punnett squares FA: Exit ticketWed/11 Karyotype Lab: Non-disjunction chromosomal diseasesThur/12... Hand in lab write ups...Exam on Ch7 Chromosomes to KaryotypesFri/13... DNA...an introduction (students:find older notes on DNA Facts) we will go over and review...finish DNA facts today




Mon/16.... How and under what circumstances is DNA copied? DNA Replication (semi-conservative replication) CENTRAL DOGMA DNA--> RNA ---> Proteins 1. The entire DNA sequence is copied when a cell divides 2. Short segments of code are copied to make a protein...so one little part is copied Replication and translation...how are they connected?- DNA Replication (copying): Enzymes used: 1. DNA Helicase ( unzips the double helix making two strands 1. leading strand 5-prime to 3-prime and the lagging strand) 2. Single Strand Binding proteins (to keep the strands separated) 3. RNA Primase (starts the replication) 4. DNA Polymerase (Completes the copying of nitrogen bases)- Three steps of Replication" 1. Un-zipping 2. Base pairing 3. Joining








This pic is flipped...the leading strand is on the bottom...but you can see the enzymes/proteins doing their jobs and a few we did not mention...yet.

Tue/12... The lagging strand...How is it copied (dis-continuously) OKAZAKI fragments, DNA LigaseWed/13... Translation...types of RNA mRNA,tRNA,rRNA and what each doesThur/14... editing...exons and introns...5'cap and 3' caps codons and anti-codonsFri/15...Ch16 DNA Replication/translation exam