Citing Sources

Cite your sources when:

  • Using any of the following: books; websites; periodicals; newspapers and magazines; material from electronic databases; radio or television programs; films, plays, and other performances; interviews; speeches; letters and correspondence, including email; government sources.
  • You copy someone else's exact words.
  • You reprint any visual materials, including diagrams, illustrations, photographs / pictures, and charts.
  • Re-using or re-posting anything electronically, including images, audio, video, or other media.

ANY WORDS, IDEAS, OR OTHER PRODUCTIONS THAT ORIGINATE SOMEWHERE OUTSIDE OF YOURSELF NEED TO BE CITED.


Some things that don't need to be cited:

  • When writing about your own experiences, observations, insights, thoughts, or conclusions on a subject.
  • When writing up your own results from lab or field experiments.
  • When you use your own artwork, digital photos, video, audio, etc. (something you create).
  • When using common knowledge: folklore, common sense observations, myths, urban legends, and historical events -- this does NOT include historical documents, though.
  • When using generally accepted facts (e.g. pollution is bad for the environment).


WHEN IN DOUBT, CITE THE SOURCE!

PLAGIARISM is the use of another person's work (words, ideas, illustrations, etc) without giving credit to the creator of the work. It doesn't matter if the work is published or not, and it doesn't matter if it's intentional or not; if you use someone else's work without giving them sufficient credit, it is plagiarism.

**Adapted from the following:

What Every Student Should Know About Avoiding Plagiarism by Linda Stern

The Purdue OWL


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Works Cited vs. Works Consulted

Any materials that you use in your paper/project directly, whether you've paraphrased, summarized, or quoted from the original, require an in-text citation, and go onto your Works Cited list.

Any materials that you consult (look at, read, listen to, etc.) that affect your thinking and/or understanding, but were not directly used in your paper/project, go onto your Works Consulted list.