J - Students




Student Publications: Code of Ethics of Canons of Journalism
NEPN/NSBA Code: JICE-E


The primary function of newspapers is to communicate to the human race what its members do, feel and think. Journalism, therefore, demands of its practitioners the widest range of intelligence or knowledge and of experience, as well as natural and trained powers of observation and reasoning. To its opportunities as a chronicle are indissolubly linked its obligations as teacher and interpreter.

In the end of finding some means of codifying sound practice and just aspirations of American journalism, these canons are set forth:

A. Responsibility
The right of a newspaper to attract and hold readers is restricted by nothing but consideration of public welfare. The use of a newspaper makes of the share of public attention it gains serves to determine its sense of responsibility, which it shares with every member of its staff. A journalist who uses his/her power for any selfish or otherwise unworthy purpose is faithless to a high trust.
B. Freedom of the Press
Freedom of the press is to be guarded as a vital right of mankind. It is the unquestionable right to discuss whatever is not explicitly forbidden by law, including the wisdom of any restrictive statute.
C. Independence
Freedom from all obligation except that of fidelity to the public interest is vital.
  1. Promotion of any private interest contrary to the general welfare, for whatever reason, is not compatible with honest journalism. So-called news communications from private sources should not be published without public notice of their source or else substantiation of their claims to value as news, both in form and substance.
  2. Partisanship, in editorial comment which knowingly departs from the truth, does violence to the best spirit of American journalism; in the news columns it is subversive of a fundamental principle of the profession.
D. Sincerity, Truthfulness, Accuracy
Good faith with the reader is the foundation of all journalism worthy of the name.
  1. By every consideration of good faith, a newspaper is constrained to be truthful. It is not to be excused for lack of thoroughness or accuracy within its control, or failure to obtain command of these essential qualities.
  2. Headlines should be fully warranted by the contents of the articles which they surmount.
E. Impartiality
Sound practice makes clear distinction between news reports and expressions of opinion. News reports should be free from opinion or bias of any kind.

This rule does not apply to so-called special articles unmistakably devoted to advocacy or characterized by a signature authorizing the writer’s own conclusions and interpretation.

F. Fair Play
A newspaper should not publish unofficial charges affecting reputation or moral character without an opportunity given to the accused to be heard. Right practice demands the giving of such an opportunity in all cases of serious accusation outside judicial proceedings.

  1. A newspaper should not invade private rights or feelings without sure warrant of public right as distinguished from public curiosity.
  2. It is the privilege, as it is the duty, of a newspaper to make prompt and complete correction of its own serious mistakes of fact or opinion, whatever their origin.
G. Decency
A newspaper cannot escape conviction of insincerity if while professing high moral purpose it supplies incentives to base conduct, such as are to be found in details of crime and vice, publication of which is not demonstrably for the general good. Lacking authority to enforce its canons the journalism here represented can but express the hope that deliberate pandering to vicious instincts will encounter effective public disapproval or yield to the influence of a preponderant professional condemnation.