Rosa Louise Parks has been called the "Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement."
By not giving up her seat to a white passenger on a city bus,
Rosa Parks started a protest that was felt throughout the United States.
Her quiet, courageous act changed America and redirected the course of history.
After refusing to give up her seat on that December day coming home from work,
Parks was taken into custody and fined $14.
She was eventually convicted of violating segregation laws, but did not accept the situation.
Name: Rosa Louise McCauley Parks
Birth: February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama, to James and Leona McCauley
Childhood: Grew up on a small farm with her brother, mother, and grandparents.
Childhood Fears: Hearing the Ku Klux Klan ride at night, listening to lynchings, and being afraid the house would burn down.
School: Attended a school for African-American children. The old, one-room schoolhouse was only open five months a year and just went up to sixth grade. In 1924, at age 11, she was sent to Montgomery to continue her studies. Five years later, she left school in order to care for her sick grandmother, and later, her mother.
Marriage/Young Adult Years:
1930s - 1955: Seamstress
1943: Appointed secretary of the NAACP's Montgomery branch and later its youth leader.
1965 - 1988: Worked as a receptionist and office assistant for John Conyers, an African-American congressman. Part of her job involved helping homeless people get housing.
1987 - Present: Established the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development. Its ongoing mission is to motivate and direct youth to achieve their highest potential.
Greatest Achievement: Sparking the modern civil rights movement in the United States by refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger. Rosa Parks's arrest for breaking Montgomery segregation laws started a boycott of the city bus line that lasted 381 days. This eventually led to the 1956 Supreme Court ruling declaring segregation illegal on public buses.
Later Adult Years: After moving to Michigan in 1957, Rosa Parks continued the fight for equal rights and
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