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Profiles of Selected Indian Leaders During the 1770s

This document provides a little interesting information about some of the prominent Native Americans from the time of the Revolutionary War. It is a work in progress!

Guyasuta (Sometimes spelled Kayahsota)
Guyasuta was a chief of the Senecas. Guyaasuta translates to mean, “It stands up to the cross.” In 1753, Guyasuta guided George Washington’t expedition to Fort Le Boeuf near the modern day location of Waterford, Pennsylvania. Washington was on a mission for the governor of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddie. Washington’s task was to request that the French leave the Ohio Country. During the mission, Washington and Guyasuta became close friends. However, Guyasuta supported the French side during the French and Indian War. As the chief of the Iroquois Confederacy, Guyasuta helped to negotiate the treaty between the Iroquois and the British at the end of the French and Indian War. Early in the French and Indian War, the Indians and French destroyed Fort Granville. Simon Girty was among the prisoners from Fort Granville. Guyasuta adopted Girty and took him along as he travelled among the various Indian tribes. Guyasuta was also a major player in Pontiac’s War. During the Revolutionary War, Guyasuta sided with the British. In spite of their differences, there is good evidence that Guyasuta and Washington remained friends. July 13, 1782, a combined force of Indians and Canadian rangers, attacked and destroyed Hannastown, the county seat of Westmoreland County, PA. Most accounts state that Guyasuta led the Indian contingent. Guyasuta was Chief Cornplanter’s uncle.

Netawatwees, AKA the Newcomer or simply Newcomer
Netawatwees was a chief of the Turtle Clan of the Lenape (Delaware) Indians. Some sources say that he founded the Delaware town called Gekelukpechink which was located on the Tuscarawas River about 16 miles west of Coshocton. Gekelukpechink became known as Newcomerstown. Some sources also credit Netawatees with establishing the Delaware town of Coshocton. Chief Gelelemend, AKA John Kill Buck or John Kill Buck Jr. was a grandson of Netawatwees.

Pomoacan, AKA Dunquat, AKA Half King of the Wyandots
Pomoacon’s Town was located in Northwestern Ohio on the Sandusky River. In 1777, Pomoacan (AKA Dunquat) led a mixed force of around 200 Wyandot, Shawnee, Delaware, and Mingo Indians in an attack on Fort Henry on the Ohio River at Wheeling. Although the attack failed to destroy the fort, The Indians destroyed most of the cabins in the village as well as the crops and livestock. Although Pomoacon did not approve of the Moravian Christian Missionaries, he did not harm them. However, he was instrumental in forcing them to relocate from their homes at Salem, Shoenbrunn, and Gnadenhutten to a new settlement on the Sandusky River.

Konieschquanoheel, Aka Hopocan, AKA Chief Pipe or Captain Pipe

Hopocan was a chief of the Lenape or Delaware Wolf Clan. Even though his mother and brother were killed by General Hand’s army during the February, 1778 Squaw Campaign raid on the Delaware village, at the forks of the Beaver River, Chief Hopocan tried to keep the Delaware people out of the war between England and America by signing the Treaty of Fort Pitt on September 17, 1778. After Broadhead’s attack on Coshocton and the other Delaware villages on the Muskingum and Tuscarwas Rivers in 1781, Chief Pipe moved his people to the Sandusky River region where they built a new village which became known as “Pipe’s Town.” He also abandoned his efforts at neutrality and put his support fully behind the British. In June, 1782, Col. William Crawford led an army of undisciplined militiamen to the Sandusky River region to destroy the Indian villages located there. Crawford’s second in command was Col. David Williamson who had led the raid on the Christian Indian villages of Salem, Gnaddenhutton and Shoenbrunn where they murdered 96 innocent Christian Indians, most of whom were Delawares. A combined force of British regulars and Indians defeated Crawford’s army. During the confusion of the retreat, some of the Delaware warriors captured Crawford and brought him into Pipe’s Town. Pipe condemned him to be tortured to death as payback for the murders of the Christian Indians and the murders of Pipe’s brother and mother. After the Treaty of Greenville, Pipe moved his people west into Indiana.

Chief Koquethagechton, AKA Chief White Eyes

White Eyes was a chief of the Turkey Clan of the Lenape (AKA Delaware) Indians. Shortly after General McIntosh assumed command of the Wester Department and Fort Pitt, White Eyes contacted him requesting a meeting to work out a peace treaty between the Delawares and the Americans. White Eyes signed the Treaty of Fort Pitt on September 17, 1778. White eyes married a white woman named Rachel Dodridge. Rachel had been taken captive sometime around 1770 as a five year old girl and was adopted into the tribe. They had one son who they named “George Morgan White Eyes, after a close family friend. On November 5, 1778, some Militiamen murdered Chief White Eyes. Ten years later, in 1788, Rachel was also murdered. George Morgan then looked after their son. Morgan succeeded in getting the Continental Congress to pay for George Morgan White Eyes to be educated at the College of New Jersey at Princeton. (Today known as Princeton University) He graduated in 1789.

Chief Gelelemend, AKA John Kill Buck or John Kill Buck Jr.
Gelelemend was a chief of the Turtle Clan of the Delaware Indians. His grandfather was Netawatwees. As the chief of the Turtle Clan of the Delawares, Geldemend signed the Treaty of Fort Pitt on September 17, 1778. After the assassination of chief White Eyes, Gelelemend became the general chief of all of the Delawares. In that capacity, Gelelemend attempted to keep his people out of the war between the British and the Americans. Believing it to be a peace mission, Kill Buck guided the Broadhead expedition to Newcomerstown for talks with the Delawares in April, 1871. Unfortunately, Lewis Wetzel murdered one of the Delaware chiefs leaving Broadhead no choice but to destroy the Delaware towns on the Muskingum. Because of his involvement with the Americans during the Coshocton Massacre, he became an outcast from his people and lived in fear for his life for the remainder of his days. In 1788, Gelelemend was baptized into Christianity at the old Moravian missionary town of Salem, Ohio. When he was baptized, he took the Christian name of William Henry which may have been because of his continued fear of retribution for guiding the Broadhead Expedition.

Page updated on 1-23-18
By Earl Nicodemus
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