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Civil War Soldiers and Veterans

On November 6, 1860, Vienna residents voted for a presidential candidate whose election would alter the United States and ignite a war like no other in the young nation’s history. Abraham Lincoln’s election was followed by the secession of Southern states to form the Confederate States of America.

In the staunchly abolitionist Western Reserve of Ohio, support for the war was strong and the mobilization of men was quickly undertaken. Within weeks after the first shots of the Civil War were fired, on April 12, 1861, calls for soldiers appeared in local newspapers. The first men from Vienna Township to enlist in the volunteer regiments being raised included Hiram Patten and Merritt Emerson.

More than 90 men who were Vienna residents at the War’s start or who settled in the Township after the War served. Twelve did not return: Erastus W. Bartholomew, James M. Bennett, Merritt Emerson, Jasper Robinson Hull, William Henry McClurg, Charles Munson, Addison Perkins, Asa Elmer Scovill, Bennett [Bennet] Scoville, Albert [Hurlbert] Truesdell, Seldon Sloen Truesdell, and Jonathan B. Tuttle.

Conscription and Substitutes
Some Vienna men, such as Job J. Holliday, chose not to volunteer or to serve if drafted. The federal government authorized a number of military drafts during the course of the War. Called conscription, the military draft operated much differently than what Americans experienced in the twentieth century's world wars and the Korean and Vietnam conflicts.

Until 1863, a man whose name was called did not have to serve if he found and sent a substitute or if he paid a $300 commutation fee to be excused from service for three years. This commutation fee was ended in July 1864 as the war deepened, increasing the price of substitutes.

Each Congressional district was assigned a quota of men to fill and given fifty days in which to fulfill that quota. Each township in Northeast Ohio appointed a person to clear the township of the quota obligation.  For Vienna, this person was Ichabod B. Payne.

If a given district had already met a quota through enlistees, a draft was not held. It was considered patriotic not to hold a draft, so Americans raised monies to pay bounties for men to enlist. The federal government offered a $100 enlistment bounty to be paid at the end of service. States offered bounties as well. Some men chose to enlist because they would earn these bounties as well as military pay.

It also paid to be a substitute. Not only was a substitute paid a fee by the person he replaced, he also earned the enlistment bounty (or bounties) and military pay.

Those men who chose to pay substitutes need not have been wealthy. Insurance companies offered draft insurance that covered the possibility that a policy owner's name would be called. It was not considered unpatriotic not to serve. Ohioans (and future presidents) Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, and William McKinley served. Grover Cleveland, of New York, paid a substitute and was still elected president--twice!

From the records of the July 1863 draft, we learn that eight Vienna men hired substitutes: Ira Church Bartholomew, Epenitus Bartholomew, William D. Griffis, Leandor [Leando] Greenwood, Comfort Mackey, Morrison Perkins, James H. Robbins, and Samuel Sigler.

Ira Church Bartholomew was the grandson of Vienna pioneers Abiel and Mary Bartholomew. Born in 1839, Bartholomew is listed as a teamster and a farmer in various records. Several Bartholomew family members had already enlisted in the Union Army. His second cousin Edward O. Bartholomew and his uncle Erastus W. Bartholomew were serving in the 105th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Erastus would be captured at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863. He died on June 15, 1863, in Georgia's infamous Andersonville Prison.

The reason why Ira Church Bartholomew chose to pay a substitute is unclear. Perhaps it was because he had only recently married Sarah Olive McMullen, on September 16, 1862. Perhaps physical disability was the reason. Men with mental disabilities were exempt. Men who were the only sons of widows, the sons of infirm parents, or widowers with dependent children were exempt. Men with certain physical disabilities were not required to enroll in the draft: the lack of front teeth and molars, the loss of more than one finger on the right hand or more than two fingers on the left hand, and imperfect vision in one eye released men from military obligation. Ira Church Bartholomew's name appears in the 1863 draft record, so he presented himself as physically fit. Yet, when he died in 1914, his physician noted that he suffered chronic bronchitis. Was it more patriotic and manly to pay a substitute rather than to seek a medical exemption?

Roll Call of Vienna's Civil War Soldiers

What follows is a list of Vienna's Civil War soldiers known to date. This list is based on research including a survey of extant grave markers and memorials in Vienna's cemeteries, Civil War draft registration records from 1863 to 1865, veterans' pension records, and other primary and secondary sources. Fully ten percent of Vienna Township's population in 1860 fought in the Civil War.

Note: An asterisk (*) designates a grave marker or memorial in Vienna Township Cemetery (unless noted otherwise).

Andrews, Lucius
Andrews, Sam*

Baldwin, Harris Dwight*
Bartholomew, Edward O.*
Bartholomew, Erastus W.
Bennett, James M.*
Bingham,, A. J.?
Boyd, Edwin*
Boyd, John C.*
Boys, Hugh Mackey*
Brannon, Thomas B.*
Brister, Isaac C.*
Burnett, Hiram?

Cole, Moses
Cook, Abraham M.*
Combs [or Coombs], Alfred*
Covay, John?
Cox, Samuel*
Cozad, William J.
Culver, James*

Davis, John W.? (105th OVI)
Doud, John L.*
Dray, John C.*

Eldridge, James H.*
Emerson, Merritt*

Feather, William R.

Garrard, Charles Thomas
Garrard, Daniel Warren*
Gilmore, John

Hawley, Joel
Hays, Robert P.*
Henry, John D.*
Hood, Samuel?
Hull, Hiram Wells*
Hull, Jasper Robinson*
Hull, Robert P.*
Hunt, Elbert M.?
Hutchins, Horrace E.

Kerr, Robert A.*
Kingsley, Jasper P.
Kugel, Gottlieb

Law, Richard*
Leet, James Warren*
Leet, Rodney D.*

McClurg, John M.*
McClurg, William Henry*
McCoy, Amasa A.*
Medley, Hiram
Merwin, Leland [Leeland] A.
Messersmith, Ransom
Miller, Charles E.
Miller, William W.
Mills, Alucius W.
Moore, Ashley*
Moser, Charles E.
Moser [Musser], Lemuel*
Mowry, Shaffer
Munson, Charles*

Nolan, James C.*

Overmire, William H.

Parker, Smith
Patten, Hiram
Perkins, Addison
Pound, Henry E.*
Pound, Jacob W.*
Pound, Noah H.
Powell, Dwight W.
Pruden, Stephen

Ralston, Samuel*
Raub, Samuel K.*
Rodgers, Joseph
Rogers, Zachary [Zachariah]*

Saunders, William D.*
Scott, Jefferson*
Scovill, Asa Elmer
Scovill, Lucius H.*
Scoville, Austin Warren
Scoville, Bennett [Bennet]*
Scoville, George Washington
Scoville, Horace Bassett
Sheldon, Hiram*
Snyder, Thomas C.
Squires, Albert I.
Stewart, James A.
Stewart, Robert J.*
Stewart, William Y.?
Stranahan, Robert*

Terry, E. M.*
Thomas, William?
Tribby, Emory M.
Truesdell, Albert [Hubert/Hurlbert]
Truesdell, Allison Dural
Truesdell, Edwin Earl
Truesdell, Henry Shannon*
Truesdell [Truesdale], James Jonathan*
Truesdell, John Hilliard
Truesdell, Seldon Sloen*
Tuttle, Albert P.*
Tuttle, Jonathan B.*
Tuttle, Osman B.
Tuttle, William S.

Wartman [Wortman], Abraham*
Whitten, S. C.?
Wireman [Wierman], Jesse*
Woodford, Albert W.
Woodruff, Henry
Woodruff, Willis Wilcox
Woods, James