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Fish

Snorkel surveysJuvenile salmonids were most abundant in shallow waters, and were observed feeding at the enhanced sites.  There were higher feeding frequencies for juvenile Chinook salmon at the pocket beach shallow and habitat bench deep sites, and for juvenile chum salmon at the habitat bench shallow site as compared to riprap.  Densities were somewhat variable by year but whenever results were statistically significant, they showed higher numbers at enhanced sites: densities were higher at the habitat bench compared to riprap in 2011, equal at all sites in 2009, and higher at the habitat bench and pocket beach compared to riprap in shallow waters in 2007.  Larval fish in 2011 were also most abundant at the pocket beach and habitat bench with patchy occurrences of large fish schools, and their densities were significantly higher in 2009 at the pocket beach compared to riprap.  The larval fish category contained both larval and post-larval forage fish (e.g., smelt) and demersal fish (e.g., sculpin) types.  Both juvenile salmon and larval fish benefit from refuge areas in the nearshore that are created by habitat enhancement.  Potential fish predators of juvenile salmon were rare at all sites.

Enclosure netsJuvenile salmonids accounted for 99% of the fish captured at the pocket beach.  Chinook salmon consumed mainly chironomid and aphid insects, and amphipod crustaceans.  Chum salmon fed similarly to Chinook salmon, but also fed on epibenthic harpacticoid copepods.