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Studies in Criticism: Word and Image


English 8710
Studies in Criticism:
Text and Image

Fall 1997 / Tuesdays, 12:20ñ2:35
Lind Hall 325 / Michael Hancher

THE DIALECTIC of text and image has long provoked theoretical speculation and promises to be increasingly important in the next century. This seminar will examine canonical and more recent accounts of that relationship, to assess their variety and also to identify approaches likely to be useful. Students will prepare a collaborative, annotated bibliography of selected studies of verbal-visual relationships, to be published on the World Wide Web. They will also develop individual projects in any of several relevant areas, ranging from history painting to book illustration to film to computer graphics.

Schedule of class meetings (tentative)

30 Sept

7 Oct
    Icons and emblems: Excerpts from Cesare Ripa, Iconology (1593), transl. George Richardson (1779); and George Wither,  A Collection of Emblemes (1635) (course packet).

14 Oct
    Learning by seeing: Excerpts from John Comenius, Orbis Sensualium Pictus, trans. Charles Hoole (1658), and from John Locke, Essay Concerning the Human Understanding (1690); Hancher, "Definition, Pictorial Illustration, and Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (all in course packet).

21 Oct
    Laocoön: Virgil (70ñ19 B.C.), Aeneid, transl. John Dryden (1697); book 2, excerpts (course packet); Gotthold E. Lessing, Laocoön (1766), transl. Edward A. McCormick.

28 Oct
    Semiosis: Charles Sanders Peirce, "A Second Trichotomy of Signs" and "The Icon, Index, and Symbol," Collected Papers (1931) 2: 143ñ44, 156ñ73 (on reserve in Wilson Library); Nelson Goodman, The Languages of Art (1968) 3ñ98, 127ñ73, 225ñ41.
4 Nov
    Image and code: E. H. Gombrich, "Image and Code: Scope and Limits of Conventionalism in Pictorial Representation" (1978), The Image and the Eye 278ñ97 (on reserve in Wilson Library); W. T. J. Mitchell, Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology (1987).

11 Nov
    Mechanical reproduction: Walter Benjamin, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1936), Illuminations 217ñ51(on reserve in Wilson Library); William M. Ivins, Prints and Visual Communication (1953); Roland Barthes, "The Plates of the Encyclopedia" (1964), New Critical Essays 23ñ39 (on reserve in Wilson Library).

18 Nov
    Illustration: J. Hillis Miller, Illustration (1992).

25 Nov
    Seminar presentations.

2 Dec
    Seminar presentations.

9 Dec
    (Possible.) Seminar presentations.

Textbooks (required; to be stocked in Williamson Hall bookstore)

  • Goodman, Nelson. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1968. Paper. 0ñ915144ñ34ñ4. $12.95.
  • Ivins, William M. Prints and Visual Communication. 1953. Cambridge: MIT P, 1969. Paper. 0ñ262ñ59002ñ6. $12.50.
  • Lessing, Gotthold E. Laocoön: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry. 1766. Transl. Edward A. McCormick. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1984. Paper. ISBN 0ñ8018ñ3139ñ3. $15.95.
  • Miller, J. Hillis. Illustration. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1992. Paper. ISBN 0ñ674ñ44358ñ6. $20.95
  • Mitchell, W. T. J. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987. Paper. ISBN 0ñ226ñ53229ñ1. $9.95.

Textbooks (supplementary; a few copies to be stocked in Williamson Hall bookstore)

  • Barthes, Roland. Image, Music, Text. New York: Farrar, 1978. ISBN 0ñ374ñ52136ñ0. $14.00. Includes "The Photographic Message" and "Rhetoric of the Image."
  • Barthes, Roland. New Critical Essays. New York: Hill, 1980. Paper. ISBN 0ñ8090ñ1396ñ7. $6.95. Includes "The Plates of the Encyclopedia" (1964), 23ñ39.
  • Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969. Paper. ISBN 0ñ8052ñ0241ñ2. $14.00. Includes "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1936), 217ñ51.
  • Hagstrum, Jean H. 1958. The Sister Arts: The Tradition of Literary Pictorialism and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1975. Paper. ISBN 0ñ226ñ31298ñ4. $16.00.
  • The Language of Images. Ed. W. T. J. Mitchell. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1980. Paper. ISBN 0ñ226ñ53215ñ1. $17.95.

On reserve in Wilson Library

Barthes, Roland.
  New critical essays / Roland Barthes ; translated by Richard
Berkeley : University of California Press, 1990, c1980.
LOCATION: WILSON PQ139 .B3213 1990
  - Includes "The Plates of the Encyclopedia" (1964), 23-39.

Benjamin, Walter, 1892-1940.
  Illuminations. Edited and with an introd. by Hannah Arendt. Translated by
Harry Zohn.  <1st ed.>  New York, Harcourt, Brace & World <1968>
 ó Includes "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1936), 217-51.

Gombrich, E. H. (Ernst Hans), 1909-
  The image and the eye : further studies in the psychology of
pictorial representation / E. H. Gombrich.Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1982.
 - Includes Image and Code: Scope and Limits of Conventionalism in Pictorial Representation," 279-97.

Peirce, Charles S. (Charles Sanders), 1839-1914.
  Collected papers (vol. 2)
Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1931-58.
LOCATION: WILSON 194P353 I, vol. 2
  - Includes "A Second Trichotomy of Signs " and "The Icon, Index, and Symbol," 143ñ44, 156ñ73.

Some relevant journals

Acta (State University of New York at Binghamton. Center for
  Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies)
  <Binghamton, N.Y.> : Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance
Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton, c1974-
Vol. 1-
  - Vol. 10 (1986) is titled "Text and Image."

Representations (Berkeley, Calif.)
  Representations. -- 1 (Feb. 1983)-   = Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1983)- --    Berkeley, Calif. : University of Calif. Press, c1983-

  Hague <etc.> Mouton Publishers <etc.>
v. 1-   1969-

Visible language.  v. 5- winter 1971- .
  Cleveland, Ohio, <etc.>
  Continues: Journal of typographic research
  "Journal for research on the visual media of language expression."

Word & image. -- Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1985)- -- London : Taylor & Francis,

Some relevant books

Andersen, P. B. (P. Bogh)
  A theory of computer semiotics : semiotic approaches to
construction and assessment of computer systems / Peter Bogh
Andersen. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1997.
LOCATION: WALTER QA76.9 .H85 A63x 1997

Babbitt, Irving, 1865-1933.
  The new Laokoon; an essay on the confusion of the arts
Boston New York, Houghton Mifflin company, 1910.

Bal, Mieke, 1946-
  Reading "Rembrandt" : beyond the word-image opposition : the
Northrop Frye lectures in literary theory / Mieke Bal.
Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Bath, Michael.
  Speaking pictures : English emblem books and Renaissance
culture / Michael Bath.
London ; New York : Longman, 1994.

Bieber, Margarete, b. 1879.
  Laocoon; the influence of the group since its rediscovery.
Rev. and enl. ed.
Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1967.

Blake, William, 1757-1827.
  Milton a poem, and the final illuminated works : The ghost of
Abel, On Homers poetry, <and> On Virgil Laocoon / edited
with introductions and notes by Robert N. Essick and Joseph
Princeton, N.J. : William Blake Trust/Princeton University
Press, c1993.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto PR4144 .M6 1993
Bland, David.
  A history of book illustration: the illuminated manuscript and
the printed book.
2nd ed.
London, Faber, 1969.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto 019.34 B61ha

Brenni, Vito Joseph, 1923-
  Book illustration and decoration : a guide to research / compiled by Vito J.
Brenni. -- Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1980.
LOCATION: WILSON Ref NC960 .B73x 1980
 -- Annotated bibliography.  Chapters: Reference Works; Book Decoration; Manuals of Illustration and Other Writings on Technique; History of Methods of Illustration; History of Book Illustration from Ancient Times to the Present Day; History of Book Illustration and Decoration in the Countries of the World; Illustration and Decoration in Children's Books; Science and Technology; Medicine; Music; Geography and History.

Bridson, Gavin D. R.
  Printmaking & picture printing : a bibliographical guide to artistic & industrial techniques in Britain, 1750-1900 Oxford <Oxfordshire> : Plough Press ; Williamsburg, Va. : Bookpress, 1984.
LOCATION: WILSON Ref Quarto Z117 .B84 1984

Bryson, Norman, 1949-
  Word and image : French painting of the ancien regime / Norman
Cambridge <Cambridgeshire> ; New York : Cambridge University
 Press, 1981.

Carson, David.
  The end of print : the graphic design of David Carson / by
Lewis Blackwell and David Carson ; introduction by David
San Francisco : Chronicle Books, 1995.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto NC999.4 .C375 A4 1995

Comenius, Johann Amos, 1592-1670
  The Orbis pictus of John Amos Comenius. Syracuse, N.Y., C. W.
Bardeen, 1887.
Detroit, Singing Tree Press, 1968.

Comenius, Johann Amos, 1592-1670.
  Orbis sensualium pictus, facsimile of the third London edition
1672, with an introduction by James Bowen.
Sydney, Sydney University Press, 1967.

Daly, Peter M. (Peter Maurice)
  The English emblem : bibliography of secondary literature / by Peter M. Daly
and Mary V. Silcox. -- Munchen ; New York : K.G. Saur, 1990.
LOCATION: WILSON Ref Z1021.3 .D35 1990

Diehl, Huston, 1948-
  An index of icons in English emblem books, 1500-1700 / by
Huston Diehl.
1st ed.
Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, c1986.
LOCATION: WILSON Reference (Non-Circulating) Quarto Z1021.3 .D53 1986

Donald, Diana.
  The age of caricature : satirical prints in the reign of
George III / Diana Donald.
New Haven : Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies
in British Art by Yale University Press, 1996.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto DA505 .D73 1996

Drucker, Johanna, 1952-
  The visible word : experimental typography and modern art,
1909-1923 / Johanna Drucker.
Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Freedberg, David.
  The power of images : studies in the history and theory of
response / David Freedberg.
Chicago : University of Chicago Press, c1989.

Gascoigne, Bamber.
  How to identify prints. : a complete guide to manual and
mechanical processes from woodcut to ink jet; with 271
illustrations, 39 in color / Bamber Gascoigne.
<New York> : Thames and Hudson, 1991.

Goldsmith, Evelyn.
  Research into illustration : an approach and a review / Evelyn Goldsmith. --
Cambridge <Cambridgeshire> ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Gombrich, E. H. (Ernst Hans), 1909-
  Art and illusion:3rd ed.London, Phaidon, 1968.

Griffiths, Antony.
  Prints and printmaking : an introduction to the history and
techniques / Antony Griffiths.
Berkeley : Los Angeles : University of California Press,

Harthan, John P.
  The history of the illustrated book : the Western tradition /
John Harthan.
New York : Thames and Hudson, 1981.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto 019.34 H253

Hodnett, Edward, 1901-
  Five centuries of English book illustration / Edward Hodnett. -- Aldershot
<Hampshire> : Scolar Press, 1988.
LOCATION: WILSON Ref Quarto NC978 .H55 1988

Hodnett, Edward, 1901-
  Image and text : studies in the illustration of English literature / Edward
Hodnett. -- London : Scolar Press, 1982.

Hollander, John.
  The gazer's spirit : poems speaking to silent works of art /
John Hollander.
Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1995.
LOCATION: WILSON PS3515 .O3485 G39 1995

Hulse, Clark, 1947-
  The rule of art : literature and painting in the Renaissance /
Clark Hulse.
Chicago : University of Chicago Press, c1990.

Hults, Linda C.
  The print in the western world : an introductory history /
Linda C. Hults.
Madison, Wis. : University of Wisconsin Press, c1996.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto NE400 .H79 1996

Hunter, Jefferson, 1947-
  Image and word : the interaction of twentieth-century
photographs and texts / Jefferson Hunter.
Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1987.

  Image and code / Ernst H. Gombrich ... <et al.> ; edited by
Wendy Steiner.
<Ann Arbor, Mich.> : Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate
Studies, c1981.
LOCATION: WILSON NX180 .S46 I46 1981

  Images & texts : their production and distribution in the 18th
and 19th centuries / edited by Peter Isaac and Barry McKay.
New Castle, Del. : Oak Knoll Press, 1997.

Jaffe, Aniela.
  C. G. Jung, word and image / edited by Aniela Jaffe.
Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1979.
LOCATION: WALTER Quarto 150.1954 J18cgE

Kress, Gunther R.
  Reading images : the grammar of visual design / Gunther Kress
and Theo van Leeuwen.
London ; New York : Routledge, 1996.

Krieger, Murray, 1923-
  Ekphrasis : the illusion of the natural sign / Murray Krieger
; emblems by Joan Krieger.
Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, c1992.
LOCATION: WILSON N1126 .K75 1992

Kuo, Chi-sheng.
  Word as image : the art of Chinese seal engraving / Jason C.
New York City : China House Gallery : China Institute in
America ; Seattle : distributed by University of Washington
Press, 1992.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto CD6173 .K86 1992

Lanham, Richard A.
  The electronic word : democracy, technology, and the arts /
Richard A. Lanham.
Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1993.
LOCATION: WILSON QA76.9 .C66 L363 1993
  - Elaborates arguments in "The Implications of Electronic Information for
the Sociology of Knowledge" (1993)ñ-available online at <http://www.cni.org/docs/tsh/www/Lanham.html>.

Leonardo, da Vinci, 1452-1519.
  Paragone; a comparison of the arts.
London, New York, Oxford Univ. Press, 1949.

Lewis, Suzanne.
  Reading images : narrative discourse and reception in the
thirteenth-century illuminated apocalypse / Suzanne Lewis.
New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, 1995.
LOCATION: WILSON ND3361 .R5 L48 1995

McGann, Jerome J.
  The textual condition / Jerome J. McGann.
Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1991.

McGann, Jerome J.
  Black riders : the visible language of modernism / Jerome
Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1993.

Melot, Michel.
  The art of illustration / by Michel Melot ; <translated from
the French by James Emmons>.
New York : Skira / Rizzoli, 1984.
LOCATION: WILSON Folio NC960 .M413 1984

Merrell, Floyd, 1937-
  Peirce, signs, and symbols / Floyd Merrell.
Toronto ; Buffalo : University of Toronto Press, 1997.

Maidment, B. E.
  Reading popular prints, 1790-1870 / B.E. Maidment.
Manchester ; New York : Manchester University Press ; New York
: Distributed exclusively in the USA by St. Martin's Press,
LOCATION: WILSON NE962 .M35 M35 1996

Morris, William, 1834-1896.
  The ideal book : essays and lectures on the arts of the book /
by William Morris ; edited by William S. Peterson.
Berkeley, Calif. : University of California Press, 1982.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto 019.242 M834
Panofsky, Erwin, 1892-1968.
  Studies in iconology; humanistic themes in the art of the
New York, Oxford university press, 1939.

Rand, Paul, 1914-
  Paul Rand, a designer's art.
New Haven <Conn.> : Yale University Press, 1985.

Ray, Gordon Norton, 1915-
  The illustrator and the book in England from 1790 to 1914 / Gordon N. Ray ;
<formal bibliographical descriptions by Thomas V. Lange ; photography by Charles V. Passela>. -- New York : Pierpont Morgan Library, c1976.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto 019.34 R211

  Ray gun : out of control / introduction by Marvin Scott
Jarrett ; essay by Dean Kuipers.
New York : Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Richter, Simon.
  Laocoon's body and the aesthetics of pain : Winckelmann,
Lessing, Herder, Moritz, Goethe / Simon Richter.
Detroit, Mich. : Wayne State University Press, c1992.

Ripa, Cesare, fl. 1600.
London, Printed by G. Scott, 1779.
LOCATION: WILSON Rare Books Folio 809.18 R48E

Schapiro, Meyer, 1904-
  Words and pictures. On the literal and the symbolic in the illustration of a
The Hague, Mouton, 1973.
LOCATION: WILSON 704.9484 Sch16

Schapiro, Meyer, 1904-
  Words, script, and pictures : semiotics of visual language /
by Meyer Schapiro.
New York : G. Braziller, 1996.
LOCATION: WILSON P93.5 .S33 1996

Sparrow, John Hanbury Angus, 1906-
  Visible words: a study of inscriptions in and as books and
works of art <by> John Sparrow.
London, Cambridge U.P., 1969.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto 417.7 Sp26

Spencer, Herbert, 1924-
  The visible word.
<2d ed., rev.>
New York, Hastings House <1969>
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto 019.31 Sp33

Stewart, Philip.
  Engraven desire : Eros, image, & text in the French eighteenth
century / by Philip Stewart.
Durham : Duke University Press, 1992.
LOCATION: WILSON NE647.2 .S73 1992

  The Psychology of illustration / edited by Dale M. Willows, Harvey A. Houghton.
New York : Springer-Verlag, c1987.
LOCATION: WALTER LB1067.5 .P78 1987
  ó Includes W. Howard Levie, "Research on Pictures: A Guide to the Literature," 1:1ñ50; Patricia Mulcahy and S. Jay Samuels, "Three Hundred Years of Illustrations in American Textbooks," 2:1ñ52.

Steiner, Wendy, 1949-
  The colors of rhetoric : problems in the relation between
modern literature and painting / Wendy Steiner.
Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1982.

  The Telling image : explorations in the emblem / editors,
Ayers L. Bagley, Edward M. Griffin, Austin J. McLean.
New York : AMS Press, 1996.
LOCATION: WILSON N7740 .T36 1996

  Text into image - Image into text / proceedings of the
interdisciplionary bicentenary .../ Edited by Jeff Morrison
and Florian Krobb.
Amsterdam ; Atlanta, GA : Rodopi, 1997

Tufte, Edward R., 1942-
  The visual display of quantitative information / Edward R. Tufte. -- Cheshire, Conn. (Box 430, Cheshire 06410) : Graphics Press, c1983.
LOCATION: WILSON QA276.3 .T83 1983

Tufte, Edward R., 1942-
  Visual explanations : images and quantities, evidence and
narrative / Edward R. Tufte.
Cheshire, Conn. : Graphics Press, 1997.
LOCATION: WALTER Quarto BF241 .T83x 1997

Waal, H. van de (Henri), 1910-1972.
  Iconclass : an iconographic classification system / H. van de
Waal ; completed and edited by L. D. Couprie with R. H.
Fuchs, E. Tholen.
Amsterdam : North-Holland Pub. Co., 1973-1985.
LOCATION: WILSON Reference Z697.A8 W3 1973 (Non-Circulating)
LIBRARY HAS: 3 v. in 17.

Warde, Beatrice, 1900-1969.
  The crystal goblet
Cleveland, World Pub. Co., 1956.

Wilden, Anthony.
  System and structure: essays in communication and exchange /
Anthony Wilden.
2d ed.
London ; New York : Tavistock Publications, 1980.
  Word and image in Maya culture : explorations in language,
writing, and representation / edited by William F. Hanks and
Don S. Rice.
Salt Lake City : University of Utah Press, 1989.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto F1435.3 .P6 W67 1989

  Words and images : Chinese poetry, calligraphy, and painting /
edited by Alfreda Murck and Wen C. Fong.
New York : Metropolitan Museum of Art ; Princeton : Princeton
University Press, c1991.
LOCATION: WILSON Quarto NK3634 .A2 W67 1991

Some relevant articles

See also those in Word and Image listed below.
  • Butler, Frances. "New Demotic Typography: The Search for New Indices." Visible Language 29 (1995): 88ñ111.
  • Deely, John N. "Antecedents to Peirce's Notion of Iconic Signs." Semiotics 1980. Ed. Michael Herzfeld and Margot D. Lenhart. New York: Plenum, 1982.109ñ120.
  • Elkins, James. "Between Picture and Proposition: Torturing Paintings in Wittgenstein's Tractatus." Visible Language 30 (1996): 73ñ95.
  • Emmerson, Richard K. "Text and Image in the Ellesmere Portraits of the Tale-Tellers." The Ellesmere Chaucer: Essays in Interpretation. Ed. Martin Martin and Daniel Woodward. San Marino: Huntington Library, 1995. 143ñ70.
  • Fisher, Judith L. "Image versus Text in the Illustrated Novels of William Makepeace Thackeray." Victorian Literature and the Victorian Visual Imagination. Ed. Carol T. Christ and John O. Jordan. Berkeley: U of California P, 1995. 60ñ87.
  • Freccero, John. "Blow-Up: From the Word to the Image." Yale/Theatre. 3 (1970): 15ñ24.
  • Fyfe, Gordon. "Art and Its Objects: William Ivins and the Reproduction of Art." Picturing Power: Visual Depiction and Social Relations. Ed. Gordon Fyfe and John Law. London: Routledge, 1988.
  • Gaudreault, Andre. "Showing and Telling: Image and Word in Early Cinema." Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative. Ed. Thomas Elsaesser and Adam Barker. London: British Film Institute, 1990. 274ñ81.
  • Hibbitts, Bernard J. "Making Sense of Metaphors: Visuality, Aurality, and the Reconfiguration of American Legal Discourse." Cardozo Law Review 16 (1994): 229+.
  • Gilman, Ernest B. "Word and Image in Quarles' Emblemes." Critical Inquiry 6 (1980): 385ñ410.
  • McKitterick, Rosamond. "Text and Image in the Carolingian World." The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe. Ed. Rosamond McKitterick. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 297+.
  • Mayer, Richard E., and Joan K. Gallni. "When is an Illustration Worth Ten Thousand Words?" Journal of Eucational Psychology 82 (1990): 715+.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. "'A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words': From Advertising Slogan to American Proverb." Southern Folklore 47 (1990): 207ñ25.
  • Panofsky, Erwin. "Et in Arcadia Ego: Poussin and the Elegiac Tradition" (1936). Meaning in the Visual Arts: Papers in and on Art History. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1955. 295ñ320.
  • Rothman, David J. "Verse, Prose, Speech, Counting, and the Problem of Graphic Order." Versification: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Literary Prosody.
  • Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle. "The Image in the Text: Methodological Aspects of the Analysis of Illustrations and Their Relation to the Text." Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library 75 (1993): 25ñ31.
  • Varga, A. Kibedi. "Criteria for Describing Word-and-Image Relations." Poetics Today 10 (1989): 31ñ53.
  • Woodfield, Richard. "Words and Pictures." British Journal of Aesthetics 26 (1986): 357ñ70.

Selected articles published in Word and Image

See also "Author Index to Volumes 1ñ8," 8 (1992): 385ñ90, from which most of these titles are extracted.
  • Arnheim, Rudolf. "The images of pictures and words." 2: 306.
  • Bätschmann, Oskar. "Text and image: some general problems." 4: 11.
  • Bradford, R. W. "Criticism and the visual format of poetry." 5: 198
  • Brook, Donald. "Perceptual metaphor." 2: 333.
  • Chayes, Irene H. "Words in pictures: testing the boundaryóinscriptions by William Blake." 7: 85.
  • Chazelle, Celia M. "Pictures, books, and the illiterate: Pope Gregory's letters to Serenus of Marseilles." 6: 138.
  • Christin, Anne-Marie. "La typograhie comme langue écrit." 4: 430.
  • Conan, Michel. "The Imagines of Philostratus." 3: 162.
  • de Voogd, Peter J. "Laurence Sterne, the marbled page and ëthe use of accidents.'" 4: 383.
  • Diepeveen, Leonard. "Shifting metaphors: interarts comparisons and analogy." 5: 206.
  • Dolvers, Horst. "Depiction vs. picturing: subversive illustrations in a Victorian picture-book." 7: 201.
  • Druce, Robert. "Orbis pictus redivivus," 1: 109.
  • Duggan, Lawrence G. "Was art really the ëbook of the illiterate'?," 5: 227.
  • Elkins, James. "What really happens in pictures? Misreading with Nelson Goodman," 9: 349.
  • Hancher, Michael. "Bailey and After: Illustrating Meaning," 8: 1.
  • Heffernan, James A. W. "Painting against poetry: Reynolds's Discourses and the discourse of Turner's art," 7: 275.
  • Hollander, John. "The Poetics of ekphrasis," 4:209.
  • Howard, Richard. "Poems on pictures and other ekphrases," 4: 37.
  • Leslie, Michael. "The dialogue between bodies and souls: Pictures and poesie in the English Renaissance," 1: 16.
  • Luborsky, Ruth Samson. "Connections and disconnections between images and texts: the case of Tudor secular book illustration," 3: 74.
  • McCoy, Katherine. "Graphic design: sources of meaning in word and image," 4: 116.
  • Potts, Alex. "The verbal and visual in Winckelmann's analysis of style," 6: 226.
  • Scott, David. "Pictorialist poetics: the nineteenth-century French re-reading of 'ut pictura poesis,'" 4: 364.
  • Scott, Grant F. "The rhetoric of dilation: ekphrasis and ideology," 7: 301.

Some relevant Web sites

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Michael Hancher
Department of English, University of Minnesota
URL: <http://mh.cla.umn.edu/8710text.html>
Comments to: mh@maroon.tc.umn.edu
Created 15 August 1997
Revised 25 October 1997