IEEE Publications

Adequacy of Hospital Power Systems as Strategic Operational Structures

Giuseppe Parise - Luigi Parise - Marco Allegri - Amedeo De Marco - Mike Anthony

Submitted to IEEE Industrial Applications Society Conference 2020 (Accepted for publication)

Abstract – An advanced guideline must be defined to support the design of power supply systems for performances of service continuity and power outage resilience, which are fundamental for strategic operational structures (SOS) as hospitals, barracks, civil protection centers etc. A fundamental role in guaranteeing the electrical resilience of the power system is determined by the supply sources and the topology of the related system. There is still no standard to assess the adequacy of hospitals power systems for natural and human-made disasters; the World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes it as a basic problem.  The SOS are subject to various anti-seismic legislative and civil protection measures, which prescribe to safeguard and plan the full operability including the power supply continuity. It is necessary that the hospital complexes obtain the explicit recognition for the provision of an "electric partition system", a local fortified structure, designed for service continuity during fault events and managed to ensure an adequate dynamic response to any emergency and maintenance needs. The importance of a Business Continuity Management (BCM) is underlined; it has to be qualified for a comprehensive design with both the in-op approaches for the initial installation of the system and its life cycle operation.

The In-Op Design of Electrical Distribution Systems Based on Microsystem Criteria

Giuseppe Parise, Civil & Industrial Engineering Faculty, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Michael A. Anthony, University of Michigan Finance & Operations
James R. Harvey, University of Michigan Hospitals

(To be published in IEEE Industrial Applications Society Magazine in 2017)

Abstract. This paper deals with an innovative design strategy of building power systems by introducing criteria based on a combined “installation approach” and “operating approach” (In-Op) applying the Plan-Do-Check-Adjust cycle.  It recommends design of building electrical power systems that will reduce un-used life-cycle capability of the components of the power chain.  The authors recommend consideration of the thermal aging model of Arrhenius to review the actual gap in load in selecting the rating of components.  With respect to IEC standards, this paper underlines in the circuits design the cable steady and transient current densities, the load current torque density as “natural” parameters that allow applying a thumb rule in the classic sizing of the cross sectional area of circuit conductors.  Microsystem criteria in power systems design allow structuring their configuration with components of smaller size.  To reduce radically the volume of circuit conductors with more sensitive results in the branch distribution, the authors suggest reconsideration the series commercial cross section areas of power cables.


Rightsizing Electrical Power Systems In Large Commercial Facilities

Michael A. Anthony, University of Michigan Finance & Operations
James R. Harvey, University of Michigan Hospitals
Thomas L Harman, University of Houston

(Published in IEEE Industrial Applications Society Magazine July/August 2016)

Abstract:  For decades, application of National Electrical Code (NEC) rules for sizing services, feeders and branch circuits has resulted in unused capacity in almost all occupancy classes.  US Department of Energy data compiled in 1999 indicates average load on building transformers between 10 and 25 percent.  More recent data gathered by the educational facilities industry has verified this claim.  Recognizing that aggressive energy codes are driving energy consumption lower, and that larger than necessary transformers create larger than necessary flash hazard, the 2014 NEC will provide an exception in Section 220.12 that will permit designers to reduce transformer kVA ratings and all related components of the power delivery system.  This is a conservative, incremental step in the direction of reduced load density that is limited to lighting systems.  More study of feeder and branch circuit loading is necessary to inform discussion about circuit design methods in future revisions of the NEC.

New Education and Healthcare (E&H) Facilities Committee*  

Power Services and Distribution, Infrastructure Systems, and Electro-technology Systems 

Michael A. Anthony, University of Michigan Finance & Operations
James R. Harvey, University of Michigan Hospitals

(To be published in IEEE Industrial Applications Society Magazine sometime in 2017)

Abstract:  A new committee* under the Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (I&CPS) Department of the Industry Applications Society (IAS) received approval at the October 2014 IAS Annual Meeting, in Vancouver.  This committee will be dedicated to the special needs and characteristics of the Educational and Healthcare segments of the US and World economies. For example, these two segments of the US economy, alone, annually spend $60 billion on electrical and telecommunication systems; yet, these two segments are either underrepresented, or not represented at all, in most electrical engineering forums, code writing, and/or standards writing institutions.  

This committee was formed to address many of these largely unmet electrically needs of the Educational and Healthcare segments of the economy.   This committee will provide a venue for the exchange of ideas among E&H colleagues about safety, sustainability and Total Cost of Ownership; allow for the creation and approval of needed new IEEE standards or recommended practices; and/or the revisions of existing codes to better reflect the special needs of the Education and Healthcare communities.

Reliability Engineering Applied to Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS) 

Robert Schuerger,  Hewlett-Packard

 Michael Anthony,  University of Michigan Finance & Operations

Robert Arno, Hewlett-Packard

 Mark Beirne, DLB Associates

Saad Saba,  Hewlett-Packard

(This paper was awarded the "Prize Paper Award" for the 2012 Industrial & Commercial Power Systems Conference in 2012 and was published in IEEE Industrial Applications Transactions and IAS Magazine)

Abstract:  At the request of the US Homeland Security Department in 2005 the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) developed the first leading practice criterion for building premises wiring in emergency management facilities.  These criteria first appeared in the 2008 National Electrical Code (NEC) as a new section -- Article 708: Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS).  Article 708 establishes minimum design, commissioning and maintenance requirements for facilities with engineering documentation that identifies them as designated critical operations areas (DCOAs).  One of the key features of Article 708 is the application of quantitative methods for assessing risk and conveying the results into a power system design that is scaled according to hazards present in any given emergency management district.  These methods employ classical lumped parameter modeling of power chain architectures and can be applied to any type of critical facility, whether it is a stand-alone structure, or a portion of stand-alone structure, such as a police station or government center.  This article will provide a risk assessment roadmap for a typical COPS facility that is most common -- a “911” Call Center (the facility that takes and routes the 911 calls to the police or fire departments).  The existing methods of reliability engineering will be used in the risk assessment. 

Reliability Analysis for Power to Fire Pump Using Fault Tree and RBD 

Robert Schuerger,  HP Critical Facililty Services

Michael Anthony,  University of Michigan Finance & Operations

Robert Arno, ITT Exelis

Neal Dowling, MT Technology

(This paper was was published in IEEE Industrial Applications Transactions and IAS Magazine)


Abstract.  One of the most common questions in the early stages of designing a new facility is whether the normal utility supply to a fire pump is reliable enough to "tap ahead of the main" or whether the fire pump supply is so unreliable that it must have an emergency power source; typically an on-site generator. Apart from the obligation to meet life safety objectives, it is not uncommon that capital on the order of $100,000 to $ 1 million is at stake for a fire pump backup source. Until now, that decision has only been answered with intuition-- using a combination of utility outage history and anecdotes about what has worked before. There are processes for making the decision about whether a facility needs a second source of power using quantitative analysis. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) are two quantitative methods used in reliability engineering for assessing risk. This paper will use a simple one line for the power to a fire pump to show how each of these techniques can be used to calculate the reliability of electric power to a fire pump. The paper will also discuss the strengths and weakness of the two methods. The hope is that these methods will begin tracking in the NFP A documents that deal with fire pump power sources and can be used as another tool to inform design engineers and authorities having jurisdiction about public safety and property protection. These methods will enlighten decisions about the relative cost of risk control with quantitative information about the incremental cost of additional 9's of operational availability.

IEEE Conference Presentations

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