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Bones & Bony Landmarks of Upper & Lower Limbs


Required Readings: Moore’s Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 7th edition

pgs. 7-11; 16-36; 512-531; 626-669; 673-687; 793-819

1. Understand the basics of bone markings/macroscopic bone anatomy terminology

The macroscopic appearance of bone varies based on the function of that area of bone (e.g. muscle tendon/ligament attachment, neurovasculature entering/exiting bone, joint formation, etc.) and between individuals. Understanding the basic terminology of macroscopic bone anatomy will assist in further osteological analysis.


A most basic division of osteological landmarks includes: depressions/openings & projections/processes.


Depressions and openings have two main functions: allowing the passage of soft tissue through or along bone and formation of joints. The articular surfaces of bone (joint formation) are smooth, as they were covered with articular cartilage during life.


See Table 1 for a list of depressions/openings that are commonly found on bones of upper/lower limbs.

Table 1: Osteological landmarks: depressions/openings

Bone Marking Type

Description

Cavity

Depression associated with joint articulation [e.g. glenoid cavity]

Facet

Very slight depression/flat and smooth portion of bone for articulation with another bone [e.g superior articular facet of vertebrae]

Foramen

Complete passage through bone; varies in size [e.g. obturator foramen]

Fossa

Smooth depressions of varying depth [e.g. olecranon fossa]

Groove

Shallow depression with comparatively greater length [e.g.radial groove of humerus]

Notch

An incisure [e.g. suprascapular notch]


Projections and processes have two main functions: formation of joints and attachment points for connective tissues (muscle tendons, ligaments). See Table 2 for a list of projections/processes that are commonly found on bones of upper/lower limbs.

Table 2: Osteological landmarks: projections/processes

Bone Marking Type

Description

Condyle

Rounded, smooth projection (often described as knuckle-like) [e.g. medial condyle of femur; in some case, the condyle is slightly depressed [medial condyle of tibia]

Crest

Ridge-like mounding of bone [e.g. intertrochanteric crest]

Epicondyle

Projection closely associated to a condyle [e.g. medial epicondyle]

Head

Large, smooth, and rounded prominence typically located at an epiphyseal end [e.g head of femur]

Line

Elevation of bone directed linearly [soleal line]

Malleolus

Rounded process with a smooth articular side and roughened tendon/ligament attachment side [e.g. lateral malleolus]

Process

Projection of varying length, often thin [e.g. radial styloid process]

Trochanter

Robust tuberosity specific to femur [e.g. greater trochanter]

Tubercle

Elevation/eminence created by tendon/ligament attachment [e.g. greater tubercle of humerus]

Tuberosity

Robust tubercle [e.g. deltoid tuberosity]


2. Identify bones and major bony landmarks of upper and lower limbs.


Clavicle

Description

Relevance

Sternal end

Enlarged, medial end of clavicle
Articulates with manubrium of sternum at sternoclavicular joint

Acromial end

https://sites.google.com/a/umich.edu/bluelink/resources/bones-bony-landmarks-of-upper-and-lower-limbs/Screen%20Shot%202018-03-22%20at%208.32.30%20AM.png

Flattened, lateral end of clavicleArticulates with scapula (acromion) at acromioclavicular (AC) joint


Scapula

Description

Relevance

Superior angle



Inferior angle



Medial border



Lateral border



Spine of scapula



Acromion



Coracoid process



Glenoid cavity



Supraspinous fossa



Infraspinous fossa



Suprascapular notch



Subscapular fossa





Humerus

Description

Relevance

Head




Anatomical neck




Surgical neck



Greater tubercle



Lesser tubercle



Radial groove



Deltoid tuberosity




Medial epicondyle



Lateral epicondyle



Trochlea



Capitulum




Olecranon fossa






Ulna

Description

Relevance

Olecranon



Trochlear notch



Coronoid process



Radial notch



Head



Ulnar styloid process






Radius

Description

Relevance

Head



Radial tuberosity




Radial styloid process



Carpal articular surface





Carpals

Description

Relevance

Scaphoid



Lunate



Triquetrum



Pisiform



Trapezium



Trapezoid



Capitate



Hamate





Metacarpals & Phalanges

Description

Relevance

Metacarpals



Proximal phalanges



Middle phalanges



Distal phalanges





Lumbar Vertebra (5)

Description

Relevance

Spinous process



Pedicle




Transverse process



Vertebral foramen



Intervertebral (neural) foramen





Coxal bone

Description

Relevance

Ilium



Iliac crest



Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)



Ischium



Ischial ramus



Ischial tuberosity




Pubis



Pubic body



Pubic tubercle



Symphsial surface




Superior pubic ramus



Inferior pubic ramus




Obturator foramen




Greater sciatic notch



Acetabulum





Femur

Description

Relevance

Head



Neck



Greater trochanter



Lesser trochanter



Intertrochanteric crest




Linea aspera




Medial condyle



Medial epicondyle



Lateral condyle



Lateral epicondyle



Intercondylar fossa





Patella

Description

Relevance

Patella





Tibia

Description

Relevance

Tibial plateau



Medial condyle



Lateral condyle



Intercondylar eminence



Tibial tuberosity



Medial malleolus





Fibula

Description

Relevance

Head



Neck



Lateral malleolus





Tarsals

Description

Relevance

Talus



Calcaneus



Calcaneal tuberosity



Sustentaculum tali



Navicular



Cuboid



Medial cuneiform



Middle cuneiform



Lateral cuneiform





Metatarsals & Phalanges

Description

Relevance

Metatarsals



Proximal phalanges



Middle phalanges



Distal phalanges





Arches of Foot

Description

Relevance

Medial longitudinal arch of foot



Plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament



Long plantar ligament



Plantar calcaneocuboid (short) ligament



Transverse arch of foot