Bones LO12

12. Identify the major joint and associated ligaments in the ankle & foot region. Explain what kind of movements occur at the joints and other pertinent information.

Movement Videos

The talocrural (ankle) joint is a hinge joint (dorsiflexion & plantarflexion) formed by distal fibula and tibia and the superior talus.

      • Medial (deltoid) ligament is a complex of 4 parts all of which have a proximal attachment to the medial malleolus of the tibia. The distal attachments include calcaneus, navicular, and talus.
        • The medial ligaments of the ankle are the stronger of the collateral ligaments, and are important in joint stabilization during eversion.
      • Lateral ligaments of ankle: 3 separate structures (i.e. do not share a common proximal attachment point); these ligaments as a group are important in joint stabilization during inversion but are the weaker and more commonly injured of ankle collateral ligaments.
        • Anterior talofibular ligament: located between lateral malleolus of the fibula and talar neck; most commonly injured during ankle sprains
        • Calcaneofibular ligament: located between the lateral malleolus and calcaneus
        • Posterior talofibular ligament: located between the malleolar fossa to talus
    • Clinical significance:
      • Ankle sprains: most common injury of the ankle joint as well as any other major joint of the body.
        • These types of injuries are most common after over-inversion of the foot and injury of the lateral ligaments of the ankle.

The [anatomical] subtalar joint is located at the articulation of the talus and calcaneus. A [clinical] subtalar joint is often described due to the functional similarities between the anatomical subtalar joint and talocalcaneonavicular joint, talocalcaneal part. These separate joints function in unison and are often considered together.

  • The main actions possible at the subtalar joint (both types) is inversion and eversion of the foot.

The transverse tarsal joint is a combined (compound) joint composed of the calcaneocuboid joint and the talocalcaneonavicular joint, talonavicular part. This joint assists and augments the eversion/inversion action.