Bones L05

5. Understand the types of movements that may occur at synovial joints.

    • Flexion/Extension/Hyperextension: typically sagittal plane (moving either anteriorly, or posteriorly)
      • Flexion: decrease in angle
        • Typically movement in an anterior direction (knee is a notable exception)
      • Extension: back to anatomical position
      • Hyperextension: past anatomical position
    • Abduction/Adduction: typically frontal plane (moving either laterally, or medially)
      • Abduction: away from midline
      • Adduction: back toward midline (‘Add’ back to the body)
    • Circumduction: circular motion
      • Combined motion: flexion, abduction, extension, adduction
    • Medial (internal) rotation/ Lateral (external) rotation: rotation of a part of the body around its longitudinal axis
      • Medial rotation: brings anterior surface of a limb closer to the median plane
      • Lateral rotation: takes anterior surface of a limb away from the median plane