L02 - Stomach
2. Describe the basic structure of the liver and gallbladder.
There are two prominent anatomical lobes of the liver: a larger right lobe and smaller left lobe. To see the two accessory lobes (quadrate and caudate), an inferior view (visceral surface) is necessary. The quadrate lobe is more anteriorly positioned and next to the gallbladder and round ligament of the liver. The caudate lobe is more posteriorly positioned, comma-shaped, and lies between the inferior vena cava and ligamentum venosum.
The porta hepatis is a transverse fissure in the middle of the visceral surface of the liver. The porta hepatis transmits the neurovasculature and ducts of the visceral surface of the liver (hepatic arteries, hepatic portal vein, hepatic nerve plexus, lymphatics, and hepatic ducts).
Recall that the hepatoduodenal ligament is closely associated with the porta hepatis. Its contains the following structures referred to as the portal triad: hepatic portal v., hepatic artery proper, and (common) bile duct.
The ligamentum venosum and its fissure are located between the left lobe and caudate lobe. The ligamentum venosum is the remnant of ductus venosus (shunt between the inferior vena cava and the umbilical vein).
The bare area of the liver is the posterior portion of the diaphragmatic surface of the liver, and is the only portion of the diaphragmatic surface not covered with visceral peritoneum.
The gallbladder is located in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) in a fossa on the visceral surface of the liver. The neck of the gallbladder joins the cystic duct.