Lungs and Ventilation LO2

2. Describe the right and left lung’s surface anatomy, including fissures, lobes, apex, base, hilum. Differentiate between the left and right lungs.


Structures common to both lungs:

    • Apex: superior portion, which extends into the root of the neck and covered with both visceral pleura and cervical parietal pleura
    • Base: inferior portion, closely associated with diaphragm
    • Borders: three borders (anterior, inferior, and posterior)
    • Fissures: both lungs have an oblique fissure, which separates superior & inferior lobes
    • Lobes: both lungs have a superior & inferior lobe
    • Surfaces: three surfaces (costal, diaphragmatic, and mediastinal)
        • Costal surface: largest and convex
            • Related to costal parietal pleura, which is associated with ribs and costal cartilages, bodies of thoracic vertebrae, and innermost intercostal mm.
        • Diaphragmatic surface: most inferior surface, concave
            • Related to diaphragm and base of lung
        • Mediastinal surface: medial and concave surface
            • Related to middle mediastinum

Structures specific to right lung:

    • The overall structure of the right lung is heavier and shorter than the left lung due to the close relationship of the more superior extension of the right hemidiaphragm. There are two fissures (oblique and horizontal) and three lobes (superior, middle, and inferior).

Structures specific to left lung:

    • The anterior border of the left lung has a deep indentation, the cardiac notch, caused by close association of the apex of the heart. Inferior to the cardiac notch is a small extension of the superior lobe, the lingula.