The first Earth Summit in 1992 achieved wide consensus and was considered a major step forward in the understanding of environmental issues and their broader impact.
It also proved the growing awareness of the non-state actors, by the formal recognition of stakeholders through Major Groups among which local authorities in chapter 28.
In twenty years the challenges faced by the world have changed and a new dimension should be added to the classical three pillars of sustainable development. Policies for development cannot solely be based on economic growth, social inclusion and environmental balance. Today, this triangle is not sufficient. Cultural diversity has become one of the crucial elements of globalization. Fostering intercultural dialogue and promoting cultural diversity are some of humankind’s greatest challenges: culture should become the fourth pillar of development.