Have you ever taken a course in which you read and reread the text, attended all classes and took flawless notes, carefully completed all assignments and conscientiously studied for exams, but still earned a poor grade? If so, you may need to rethink your approach to studying. In many classes the majority of test questions are low level knowledge and comprehensive questions, which require hard work to memorize lots of separate bits of information. In this course, however, exams will require use of higher order thinking skills and will be open note. So that you can focus the majority of your studies on developing an understanding of the major concepts and spend considerable time reflecting on their connections and implications, I will post all of my lectures on this page after they are covered in class. Remember that although the ability to recall specific facts will help you for some questions, you will need to have a deep understanding of each topic and its applications to succeed. Of course, this is where the real payoff of an educational experience lies.